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File: coreutils.info,  Node: cat invocation,  Next: tac invocation,  Up: Output of entire files

3.1 `cat': Concatenate and write files
======================================

`cat' copies each FILE (`-' means standard input), or standard input if
none are given, to standard output.  Synopsis:

     cat [OPTION] [FILE]...

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.

`-A'
`--show-all'
     Equivalent to `-vET'.

`-b'
`--number-nonblank'
     Number all nonempty output lines, starting with 1.

`-e'
     Equivalent to `-vE'.

`-E'
`--show-ends'
     Display a `$' after the end of each line.

`-n'
`--number'
     Number all output lines, starting with 1.

`-s'
`--squeeze-blank'
     Suppress repeated adjacent empty lines; output just one empty line
     instead of several.

`-t'
     Equivalent to `-vT'.

`-T'
`--show-tabs'
     Display TAB characters as `^I'.

`-u'
     Ignored; for POSIX compatibility.

`-v'
`--show-nonprinting'
     Display control characters except for LFD and TAB using `^'
     notation and precede characters that have the high bit set with
     `M-'.


   On systems like MS-DOS that distinguish between text and binary
files, `cat' normally reads and writes in binary mode.  However, `cat'
reads in text mode if one of the options `-bensAE' is used or if `cat'
is reading from standard input and standard input is a terminal.
Similarly, `cat' writes in text mode if one of the options `-bensAE' is
used or if standard output is a terminal.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.

   Examples:

     # Output f's contents, then standard input, then g's contents.
     cat f - g

     # Copy standard input to standard output.
     cat