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Under certain circumstances you will find yourself typing similar things
over and over again.  This is especially true of form letters and
programming language constructs.  Project-specific header comments,
flow-control constructs or magic numbers are essentially the same every
time.  Emacs has various features for doing tedious and repetitive
typing chores for you in addition to the Abbrev features (*note

   One solution is using skeletons, flexible rules that say what to
insert, and how to do it.  Various programming language modes offer some
ready-to-use skeletons, and you can adapt them to suit your needs or
taste, or define new ones.

   Another feature is automatic insertion of what you want into empty
files, depending on the file-name or the mode as appropriate.  You can
have a file or a skeleton inserted, or you can call a function.  Then
there is the possibility to have Un*x interpreter scripts automatically
take on a magic number and be executable as soon as they are saved.  Or
you can have a copyright notice's year updated, if necessary, every
time you save a file.  Similarly for time stamps in the file.

   URLs can be inserted based on a word at point.  Flexible templates
can be defined for inserting and navigating between text more
generally.  A sort of meta-expansion facility can be used to try a set
of alternative completions and expansions of text at point.

   Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
2007, 2008, 2009  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Using Skeletons::        How to insert a skeleton into your text.
* Wrapping Skeletons::     Putting existing text within a skeleton.
* Skeletons as Abbrevs::   An alternative for issuing skeleton commands.
* Skeleton Language::      Making skeleton commands insert what you want.
* Inserting Pairs::        Typing one character and getting another
                             after point.
* Autoinserting::          Filling up empty files as soon as you visit them.
* Copyrights::             Inserting and updating copyrights.
* Executables::	           Turning interpreter scripts into executables.
* Timestamps::             Updating dates and times in modified files.
* QuickURL::               Inserting URLs based on text at point.
* Tempo::                  Flexible template insertion.
* Hippie Expand::          Expansion of text trying various methods.

* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Concept Index::
* Command Index::
* Variable Index::

File: autotype,  Node: Using Skeletons,  Next: Wrapping Skeletons,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Using Skeletons

When you want Emacs to insert a form letter or a typical construct of
the programming language you are using, skeletons are a means of
accomplishing this.  Normally skeletons each have a command of their
own, that, when called, will insert the skeleton.  These commands can
be issued in the usual ways (*note (emacs)Commands::).  Modes that
offer various skeletons will often bind these to key-sequences on the
`C-c' prefix, as well as having an `Insert' menu and maybe even
predefined abbrevs for them (*note Skeletons as Abbrevs::).

   The simplest kind of skeleton will simply insert some text indented
according to the major mode and leave the cursor at a likely place in
the middle.  Interactive skeletons may prompt you for a string that
will be part of the inserted text.

   Skeletons may ask for input several times.  They even have a looping
mechanism in which you will be asked for input as long as you are
willing to furnish it.  An example would be multiple "else if"
conditions.  You can recognize this situation by a prompt ending in
<RET>, `C-g' or `C-h'.  This means that entering an empty string will
simply assume that you are finished.  Typing quit on the other hand
terminates the loop but also the rest of the skeleton, e.g. an "else"
clause is skipped.  Only a syntactically necessary termination still
gets inserted.

File: autotype,  Node: Wrapping Skeletons,  Next: Skeletons as Abbrevs,  Prev: Using Skeletons,  Up: Top

2 Wrapping Skeletons Around Existing Text

Often you will find yourself with some code that for whatever reason
suddenly becomes conditional.  Or you have written a bit of text and
want to put it in the middle of a form letter.  Skeletons provide a
means for accomplishing this, and can even, in the case of programming
languages, reindent the wrapped code for you.

   Skeleton commands take an optional numeric prefix argument (*note
(emacs)Arguments::).  This is interpreted in two different ways
depending on whether the prefix is positive, i.e. forwards oriented or
negative, i.e. backwards oriented.

   A positive prefix means to wrap the skeleton around that many
following words.  This is accomplished by putting the words there where
the point is normally left after that skeleton is inserted (*note Using
Skeletons::).  The point (*note (emacs)Point::) is left at the next
interesting spot in the skeleton instead.

   A negative prefix means to do something similar with that many
precedingly marked interregions (*note (emacs)Mark::).  In the simplest
case, if you type `M--' just before issuing the skeleton command, that
will wrap the skeleton around the current region, just like a positive
argument would have wrapped it around a number of words.

   Smaller negative arguments will wrap that many interregions into
successive interesting spots within the skeleton, again leaving the
point at the next one.  We speak about interregions rather than regions
here, because we treat them in the order they appear in the buffer,
which coincides with successive regions only if they were marked in

   That is, if you marked in alphabetical order the points A B C []
(where [] represents the point) and call a skeleton command with `M--
3', you will wrap the text from A to B into the first interesting spot
of the skeleton, the text from B to C into the next one, the text from
C to the point into the third one, and leave the point in the fourth
one.  If there are less marks in the buffer, or if the skeleton defines
less interesting points, the surplus is ignored.

   If, on the other hand, you marked in alphabetical order the points
[] A C B, and call a skeleton command with `M-- 3', you will wrap the
text from point to A, then the text from A to C and finally the text
from C to B.  This is done because the regions overlap and Emacs would
be helplessly lost if it tried to follow the order in which you marked
these points.

File: autotype,  Node: Skeletons as Abbrevs,  Next: Skeleton Language,  Prev: Wrapping Skeletons,  Up: Top

3 Skeletons as Abbrev Expansions

Rather than use a key binding for every skeleton command, you can also
define an abbreviation (*note (emacs)Defining Abbrevs::) that will
expand (*note (emacs)Expanding Abbrevs::) into the skeleton.

   Say you want `ifst' to be an abbreviation for the C language if
statement.  You will tell Emacs that `ifst' expands to the empty string
and then calls the skeleton command.  In Emacs Lisp you can say
something like `(define-abbrev c-mode-abbrev-table "ifst" "" 'c-if)'.
Or you can edit the output from `M-x list-abbrevs' to make it look like

     "if"	       0    ""	       c-if

(Some blank lines of no semantic significance, and other abbrev tables,
have been omitted.)

File: autotype,  Node: Skeleton Language,  Next: Inserting Pairs,  Prev: Skeletons as Abbrevs,  Up: Top

4 Skeleton Language

Skeletons are an shorthand extension to the Lisp language, where various
atoms directly perform either actions on the current buffer or
rudimentary flow control mechanisms.  Skeletons are interpreted by the
function `skeleton-insert'.

   A skeleton is a list starting with an interactor, which is usually a
prompt-string, or `nil' when not needed, but can also be a Lisp
expression for complex read functions or for returning some calculated
value.  The rest of the list are any number of elements as described in
the following table:

`"STRING"', `?C', `?\C'
     Insert string or character.  Literal strings and characters are
     passed through `skeleton-transformation' when that is non-`nil'.

     Insert a newline and align under current line.  Use newline
     character `?\n' to prevent alignment.

     Interesting point.  When wrapping skeletons around successive
     regions, they are put at these places.  Point is left at first `_'
     where nothing is wrapped.

     Indent line according to major mode.  When following element is
     `_', and there is a interregion that will be wrapped here, indent
     that interregion.

     Logical and.  Iff preceding element moved point, i.e. usually
     inserted something, do following element.

     Logical xor.  Iff preceding element didn't move point, i.e.
     usually inserted nothing, do following element.

     Delete preceding number characters.  Depends on value of

`()' or `nil'

     Evaluated, and the return value is again interpreted as a skeleton

     A special variable that, when evaluated the first time, usually
     prompts for input according to the skeleton's interactor.  It is
     then set to the return value resulting from the interactor.  Each
     subskeleton has its local copy of this variable.

`v1', `v2'
     Skeleton-local user variables.

     Evaluate following Lisp expression for its side-effect, but
     prevent it from being interpreted as a skeleton element.

     Subskeletons are inserted recursively, not once, but as often as
     the user enters something at the subskeletons interactor.  Thus
     there must be a `str' in the subskeleton.  They can also be used
     non-interactively, when prompt is a lisp-expression that returns
     successive list-elements.

     Ignored.  Execution resumes here if the user quits during skeleton

     A constant which is non-`nil' when the `resume:' section was
     entered because the user quit.

   Some modes also use other skeleton elements they themselves defined.
For example in shell script mode's skeletons you will find `<' which
does a rigid indentation backwards, or in CC mode's skeletons you find
the self-inserting elements `{' and `}'.  These are defined by the
buffer-local variable `skeleton-further-elements' which is a list of
variables bound while interpreting a skeleton.

   The macro `define-skeleton' defines a command for interpreting a
skeleton.  The first argument is the command name, the second is a
documentation string, and the rest is an interactor and any number of
skeleton elements together forming a skeleton.  This skeleton is
assigned to a variable of the same name as the command and can thus be
overridden from your `~/.emacs' file (*note (emacs)Init File::).

File: autotype,  Node: Inserting Pairs,  Next: Autoinserting,  Prev: Skeleton Language,  Up: Top

5 Inserting Matching Pairs of Characters

Various characters usually appear in pairs.  When, for example, you
insert an open parenthesis, no matter whether you are programming or
writing prose, you will surely enter a closing one later.  By entering
both at the same time and leaving the cursor inbetween, Emacs can
guarantee you that such parentheses are always balanced.  And if you
have a non-qwerty keyboard, where typing some of the stranger
programming language symbols makes you bend your fingers backwards,
this can be quite relieving too.

   This is done by binding the first key (*note (emacs)Rebinding::) of
the pair to `skeleton-pair-insert-maybe' instead of
`self-insert-command'.  The "maybe" comes from the fact that this
at-first surprising behavior is initially turned off.  To enable it,
you must set `skeleton-pair' to some non-`nil' value.  And even then, a
positive argument (*note (emacs)Arguments::) will make this key behave
like a self-inserting key (*note (emacs)Inserting Text::).

   While this breaks with the stated intention of always balancing
pairs, it turns out that one often doesn't want pairing to occur, when
the following character is part of a word.  If you want pairing to
occur even then, set `skeleton-pair-on-word' to some non-`nil' value.

   Pairing is possible for all visible characters.  By default the
parenthesis `(', the square bracket `[', the brace `{', the pointed
bracket `<' and the backquote ``' all pair with the symmetrical
character.  All other characters pair themselves.  This behavior can be
modified by the variable `skeleton-pair-alist'.  This is in fact an
alist of skeletons (*note Skeleton Language::), with the first part of
each sublist matching the typed character.  This is the position of the
interactor, but since pairs don't need the `str' element, this is

   Some modes have bound the command `skeleton-pair-insert-maybe' to
relevant keys.  These modes also configure the pairs as appropriate.
For example, when typing english prose, you'd expect the backquote
(``') to pair with the quote (`''), while in Shell script mode it must
pair to itself.  They can also inhibit pairing in certain contexts.
For example an escaped character stands for itself.

File: autotype,  Node: Autoinserting,  Next: Copyrights,  Prev: Inserting Pairs,  Up: Top

6 Autoinserting Text in Empty Files

`M-x auto-insert' will put some predefined text at the beginning of the
buffer.  The main application for this function, as its name suggests,
is to have it be called automatically every time an empty, and only an
empty file is visited.  This is accomplished by putting `(add-hook
'find-file-hook 'auto-insert)' into your `~/.emacs' file (*note
(emacs)Init File::).

   What gets inserted, if anything, is determined by the variable
`auto-insert-alist'.  The CARs of this list are each either a mode
name, making an element applicable when a buffer is in that mode.  Or
they can be a string, which is a regexp matched against the buffer's
file name.  In that way different kinds of files that have the same
mode in Emacs can be distinguished.  The CARs may also be cons cells
consisting of mode name or regexp as above and an additional
descriptive string.

   When a matching element is found, the CDR says what to do.  It may
be a string, which is a file name, whose contents are to be inserted, if
that file is found in the directory `auto-insert-directory' or under a
absolute file name.  Or it can be a skeleton (*note Skeleton
Language::) to be inserted.

   It can also be a function, which allows doing various things.  The
function can simply insert some text, indeed, it can be skeleton
command (*note Using Skeletons::).  It can be a lambda function which
will for example conditionally call another function.  Or it can even
reset the mode for the buffer. If you want to perform several such
actions in order, you use a vector, i.e. several of the above elements
between square brackets (`[...]').

   By default C and C++ headers insert a definition of a symbol derived
from the filename to prevent multiple inclusions.  C and C++ sources
insert an include of the header.  Makefiles insert the file if it exists.

   TeX and bibTeX mode files insert the file tex-insert.tex if it
exists, while LaTeX mode files insert a typical `\documentclass' frame.
Html files insert a skeleton with the usual frame.

   Ada mode files call the Ada header skeleton command.  Emacs lisp
source files insert the usual header, with a copyright of your
environment variable `$ORGANIZATION' or else the FSF, and prompt for
valid keywords describing the contents.  Files in a `bin' directory for
which Emacs could determine no specialized mode (*note (emacs)Choosing
Modes::) are set to Shell script mode.

   In Lisp (*note (emacs)Init File::) you can use the function
`define-auto-insert' to add to or modify `auto-insert-alist'.  See its
documentation with `C-h f define-auto-insert'.

   The variable `auto-insert' says what to do when `auto-insert' is
called non-interactively, e.g. when a newly found file is empty (see
     Do nothing.

     Insert something if possible, i.e. there is a matching entry in

     Insert something if possible, but mark as unmodified.

   The variable `auto-insert-query' controls whether to ask about
inserting something.  When this is `nil', inserting is only done with
`M-x auto-insert'.  When this is `function', you are queried whenever
`auto-insert' is called as a function, such as when Emacs visits an
empty file and you have set the above-mentioned hook.  Otherwise you
are alway queried.

   When querying, the variable `auto-insert-prompt''s value is used as a
prompt for a y-or-n-type question.  If this includes a `%s' construct,
that is replaced by what caused the insertion rule to be chosen.  This
is either a descriptive text, the mode-name of the buffer or the regular
expression that matched the filename.

File: autotype,  Node: Copyrights,  Next: Executables,  Prev: Autoinserting,  Up: Top

7 Inserting and Updating Copyrights

`M-x copyright' is a skeleton inserting command, that adds a copyright
notice at the point.  The "by" part is taken from your environment
variable `$ORGANIZATION' or if that isn't set you are prompted for it.
If the buffer has a comment syntax (*note (emacs)Comments::), this is
inserted as a comment.

   `M-x copyright-update' looks for a copyright notice in the first
`copyright-limit' characters of the buffer and updates it when
necessary.  The current year (variable `copyright-current-year') is
added to the existing ones, in the same format as the preceding year,
i.e. 1994, '94 or 94.  If a dash-separated year list up to last year is
found, that is extended to current year, else the year is added
separated by a comma.  Or it replaces them when this is called with a
prefix argument.  If a header referring to a wrong version of the GNU
General Public License (*note (emacs)Copying::) is found, that is
updated too.

   An interesting application for this function is to have it be called
automatically every time a file is saved.  This is accomplished by
putting `(add-hook 'before-save-hook 'copyright-update)' into your
`~/.emacs' file (*note (emacs)Init File::).  Alternative, you can do
`M-x customize-variable <RET> before-save-hook <RET>'.
`copyright-update' is conveniently listed as an option in the
customization buffer.

   The variable `copyright-query' controls whether to update the
copyright or whether to ask about it.  When this is `nil' updating is
only done with `M-x copyright-update'.  When this is `function' you are
queried whenever `copyright-update' is called as a function, such as in
the `before-save-hook' feature mentioned above.  Otherwise you are
always queried.

File: autotype,  Node: Executables,  Next: Timestamps,  Prev: Copyrights,  Up: Top

8 Making Interpreter Scripts Executable

Various interpreter modes such as Shell script mode or AWK mode will
automatically insert or update the buffer's magic number, a special
comment on the first line that makes the `exec' systemcall know how to
execute the script.  To this end the script is automatically made
executable upon saving, with `executable-chmod' as argument to the
system `chmod' command.  The magic number is prefixed by the value of

   Any file whose name matches `executable-magicless-file-regexp' is not
furnished with a magic number, nor is it made executable.  This is
mainly intended for resource files, which are only meant to be read in.

   The variable `executable-insert' says what to do when
`executable-set-magic' is called non-interactively, e.g. when file has
no or the wrong magic number:
     Do nothing.

     Insert or update magic number.

     Insert or update magic number, but mark as unmodified.

   The variable `executable-query' controls whether to ask about
inserting or updating the magic number.  When this is `nil' updating is
only done with `M-x executable-set-magic'.  When this is `function' you
are queried whenever `executable-set-magic' is called as a function,
such as when Emacs puts a buffer in Shell script mode.  Otherwise you
are alway queried.

   `M-x executable-self-display' adds a magic number to the buffer,
which will turn it into a self displaying text file, when called as a
Un*x command.  The "interpreter" used is `executable-self-display' with
argument `+2'.

File: autotype,  Node: Timestamps,  Next: QuickURL,  Prev: Executables,  Up: Top

9 Maintaining Timestamps in Modified Files

The `time-stamp' command can be used to update automatically a template
in a file with a new time stamp every time you save the file.
Customize the hook `before-save-hook' to add the function `time-stamp'
to arrange this.  It you use Custom to do this, then `time-stamp' is
conveniently listed as an option in the customization buffer.

   The time stamp is updated only if the customizable variable
`time-stamp-active' is on, which it is by default; the command
`time-stamp-toggle-active' can be used to toggle it.  The format of the
time stamp is set by the customizable variable `time-stamp-format'.

   The variables `time-stamp-line-limit', `time-stamp-start',
`time-stamp-end', `time-stamp-count', and `time-stamp-inserts-lines'
control finding the template.  Do not change these in your init file or
you will be incompatible with other people's files.  If you must change
them, do so only in the local variables section of the file itself.

   Normally the template must appear in the first 8 lines of a file and
look like one of the following:

     Time-stamp: <>
     Time-stamp: " "

   The time stamp is written between the brackets or quotes:

     Time-stamp: <1998-02-18 10:20:51 gildea>

File: autotype,  Node: QuickURL,  Next: Tempo,  Prev: Timestamps,  Up: Top

10 QuickURL: Inserting URLs Based on Text at Point

`M-x quickurl' can be used to insert a URL into a buffer based on the
text at point.  The URLs are stored in an external file defined by the
variable `quickurl-url-file' as a list of either cons cells of the form
`(KEY . URL)' or lists of the form `(KEY URL COMMENT)'.  These specify
that `M-x quickurl' should insert URL if the word KEY is at point, for

     (("FSF"      "" "The Free Software Foundation")
      ("emacs"  . "")
      ("hagbard"  "" "Hagbard's World"))

   `M-x quickurl-add-url' can be used to add a new KEY/URL pair.  `M-x
quickurl-list' provides interactive editing of the URL list.

File: autotype,  Node: Tempo,  Next: Hippie Expand,  Prev: QuickURL,  Up: Top

11 Tempo: Flexible Template Insertion

The Tempo package provides a simple way to define powerful templates, or
macros, if you wish.  It is mainly intended for, but not limited to,
programmers to be used for creating shortcuts for editing certain kinds
of documents.

   A template is defined as a list of items to be inserted in the
current buffer at point.  Some can be simple strings, while others can
control formatting or define special points of interest in the inserted
text.  `M-x tempo-backward-mark' and `M-x tempo-forward-mark' can be
used to jump between such points.

   More flexible templates can be created by including Lisp symbols,
which will be evaluated as variables, or lists, which will be evaluated
as Lisp expressions.  Automatic completion of specified tags to expanded
templates can be provided.

   See the documentation for `tempo-define-template' for the different
items that can be used to define a tempo template with a command for
inserting it.

   See the commentary in `tempo.el' for more information on using the
Tempo package.

File: autotype,  Node: Hippie Expand,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Tempo,  Up: Top

12 `Hippie' Expansion

`M-x hippie-expand' is a single command providing a variety of
completions and expansions.  Called repeatedly, it tries all possible
completions in succession.

   Which ones to try, and in which order, is determined by the contents
of the customizable option `hippie-expand-try-functions-list'.  Much
customization of the expansion behavior can be made by changing the
order of, removing, or inserting new functions in this list.  Given a
positive numeric argument, `M-x hippie-expand' jumps directly that
number of functions forward in this list.  Given some other argument (a
negative argument or just `C-u') it undoes the tried completion.

   See the commentary in `hippie-exp.el' for more information on the

   Typically you would bind `hippie-expand' to `M-/' with
`dabbrev-expand', the standard binding of `M-/', providing one of the
expansion possibilities.

File: autotype,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Hippie Expand,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
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     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
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     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
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     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
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     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
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     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
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     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
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     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
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     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
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     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
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     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
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     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
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     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
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     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
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     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
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     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
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     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."


     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.


     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.


     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.


     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: autotype,  Node: Concept Index,  Next: Command Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Concept Index

* Menu:

* autoinserting:                         Autoinserting.         (line 6)
* copyrights:                            Copyrights.            (line 6)
* executables:                           Executables.           (line 6)
* inserting pairs:                       Inserting Pairs.       (line 6)
* pairs:                                 Inserting Pairs.       (line 6)
* skeleton language:                     Skeleton Language.     (line 6)
* skeletons:                             Using Skeletons.       (line 6)
* skeletons as abbrevs:                  Skeletons as Abbrevs.  (line 6)
* templates:                             Tempo.                 (line 6)
* timestamps:                            Timestamps.            (line 6)
* URLs:                                  QuickURL.              (line 6)
* using skeletons:                       Using Skeletons.       (line 6)
* wrapping skeletons:                    Wrapping Skeletons.    (line 6)

File: autotype,  Node: Command Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Prev: Concept Index,  Up: Top

Command Index

* Menu:

* auto-insert:                           Autoinserting.        (line  6)
* copyright:                             Copyrights.           (line  6)
* copyright-update:                      Copyrights.           (line 12)
* define-auto-insert:                    Autoinserting.        (line 52)
* define-skeleton:                       Skeleton Language.    (line 89)
* executable-self-display:               Executables.          (line 37)
* executable-set-magic:                  Executables.          (line 30)
* hippie-expand:                         Hippie Expand.        (line  6)
* quickurl:                              QuickURL.             (line  6)
* quickurl-add-url:                      QuickURL.             (line 17)
* quickurl-list:                         QuickURL.             (line 17)
* skeleton-further-elements:             Skeleton Language.    (line 82)
* skeleton-insert:                       Skeleton Language.    (line  6)
* skeleton-pair-insert-maybe:            Inserting Pairs.      (line 15)
* tempo-backward-mark:                   Tempo.                (line 11)
* tempo-define-template:                 Tempo.                (line 22)
* tempo-forward-mark:                    Tempo.                (line 11)
* time-stamp:                            Timestamps.           (line  6)

File: autotype,  Node: Variable Index,  Prev: Command Index,  Up: Top

Variable Index

* Menu:

* auto-insert:                           Autoinserting.        (line 56)
* auto-insert-alist:                     Autoinserting.        (line 13)
* auto-insert-prompt:                    Autoinserting.        (line 76)
* auto-insert-query:                     Autoinserting.        (line 69)
* before-save-hook:                      Timestamps.           (line  6)
* copyright-current-year:                Copyrights.           (line 12)
* copyright-limit:                       Copyrights.           (line 12)
* copyright-query:                       Copyrights.           (line 31)
* executable-chmod:                      Executables.          (line  6)
* executable-insert:                     Executables.          (line 18)
* executable-magicless-file-regexp:      Executables.          (line 14)
* executable-prefix:                     Executables.          (line  6)
* executable-query:                      Executables.          (line 30)
* hippie-expand-try-functions-list:      Hippie Expand.        (line  6)
* quickurl-url-file:                     QuickURL.             (line  6)
* skeleton-pair:                         Inserting Pairs.      (line 15)
* skeleton-pair-alist:                   Inserting Pairs.      (line 28)
* skeleton-pair-on-word:                 Inserting Pairs.      (line 23)
* skeleton-transformation:               Skeleton Language.    (line 18)
* time-stamp-active:                     Timestamps.           (line 12)
* time-stamp-count:                      Timestamps.           (line 17)
* time-stamp-end:                        Timestamps.           (line 17)
* time-stamp-format:                     Timestamps.           (line 12)
* time-stamp-inserts-lines:              Timestamps.           (line 17)
* time-stamp-line-limit:                 Timestamps.           (line 17)
* time-stamp-start:                      Timestamps.           (line 12)