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GNU Automake

This file documents the GNU Automake package.  Automake is a program
which creates GNU standards-compliant Makefiles from template files.
This edition documents version 1.6.3.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                Automake's purpose
* Generalities::                General ideas
* Examples::                    Some example packages
* Invoking Automake::           Creating a
* configure::                   Scanning or
* Top level::                   The top-level
* Alternative::                 An alternative approach to subdirectories
* Rebuilding::                  Automatic rebuilding of Makefile
* Programs::                    Building programs and libraries
* Other objects::               Other derived objects
* Other GNU Tools::             Other GNU Tools
* Documentation::               Building documentation
* Install::                     What gets installed
* Clean::                       What gets cleaned
* Dist::                        What goes in a distribution
* Tests::                       Support for test suites
* Options::                     Changing Automake's behavior
* Miscellaneous::               Miscellaneous rules
* Include::                     Including extra files in an Automake template.
* Conditionals::                Conditionals
* Gnits::                       The effect of `--gnu' and `--gnits'
* Cygnus::                      The effect of `--cygnus'
* Extending::                   Extending Automake
* Distributing::                Distributing the
* API versioning::              About compatibility between Automake versions
* Macro and Variable Index::
* General Index::

File:,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Generalities,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction

Automake is a tool for automatically generating `'s from
files called `'.  Each `' is basically a series
of `make' macro definitions (with rules being thrown in occasionally).
The generated `'s are compliant with the GNU Makefile

   The GNU Makefile Standards Document (*note Makefile Conventions:
(standards)Makefile Conventions.)  is long, complicated, and subject to
change.  The goal of Automake is to remove the burden of Makefile
maintenance from the back of the individual GNU maintainer (and put it
on the back of the Automake maintainer).

   The typical Automake input file is simply a series of macro
definitions.  Each such file is processed to create a `'.
There should generally be one `' per directory of a project.

   Automake does constrain a project in certain ways; for instance it
assumes that the project uses Autoconf (*note Introduction:
(autoconf)Top.), and enforces certain restrictions on the
`' contents(1).

   Automake requires `perl' in order to generate the `'s.
However, the distributions created by Automake are fully GNU
standards-compliant, and do not require `perl' in order to be built.

   Mail suggestions and bug reports for Automake to

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Autoconf 2.50 promotes `' over `'.  The
rest of this documentation will refer to `' as this use is
not yet spread, but Automake supports `' too.

File:,  Node: Generalities,  Next: Examples,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 General ideas

The following sections cover a few basic ideas that will help you
understand how Automake works.

* Menu:

* General Operation::           General operation of Automake
* Strictness::                  Standards conformance checking
* Uniform::                     The Uniform Naming Scheme
* Canonicalization::            How derived variables are named
* User Variables::              Variables reserved for the user
* Auxiliary Programs::          Programs automake might require

File:,  Node: General Operation,  Next: Strictness,  Prev: Generalities,  Up: Generalities

2.1 General Operation

Automake works by reading a `' and generating a
`'.  Certain macros and targets defined in the `'
instruct Automake to generate more specialized code; for instance, a
`bin_PROGRAMS' macro definition will cause targets for compiling and
linking programs to be generated.

   The macro definitions and targets in the `' are copied
verbatim into the generated file.  This allows you to add arbitrary code
into the generated `'.  For instance the Automake
distribution includes a non-standard `cvs-dist' target, which the
Automake maintainer uses to make distributions from his source control

   Note that most GNU make extensions are not recognized by Automake.
Using such extensions in a `' will lead to errors or
confusing behavior.

   A special exception is that the GNU make append operator, `+=', is
supported.  This operator appends its right hand argument to the macro
specified on the left.  Automake will translate the operator into an
ordinary `=' operator; `+=' will thus work with any make program.

   Note that it is only valid to append to a macro in the same
conditional context as the macro was originally defined. *Note
Conditional Append::, for more information.

   Automake tries to group comments with adjoining targets and macro
definitions in an intelligent way.

   A target defined in `' generally overrides any such
target of a similar name that would be automatically generated by
`automake'.  Although this is a supported feature, it is generally best
to avoid making use of it, as sometimes the generated rules are very

   Similarly, a macro defined in `' or `AC_SUBST''ed from
`' will override any definition of the macro that
`automake' would ordinarily create.  This feature is more often useful
than the ability to override a target definition.  Be warned that many
of the macros generated by `automake' are considered to be for internal
use only, and their names might change in future releases.

   When examining a macro definition, Automake will recursively examine
macros referenced in the definition.  For example, if Automake is
looking at the content of `foo_SOURCES' in this snippet

     xs = a.c b.c
     foo_SOURCES = c.c $(xs)

   it would use the files `a.c', `b.c', and `c.c' as the contents of

   Automake also allows a form of comment which is _not_ copied into
the output; all lines beginning with `##' (leading spaces allowed) are
completely ignored by Automake.

   It is customary to make the first line of `' read:

     ## Process this file with automake to produce

File:,  Node: Strictness,  Next: Uniform,  Prev: General Operation,  Up: Generalities

2.2 Strictness

While Automake is intended to be used by maintainers of GNU packages, it
does make some effort to accommodate those who wish to use it, but do
not want to use all the GNU conventions.

   To this end, Automake supports three levels of "strictness"--the
strictness indicating how stringently Automake should check standards

   The valid strictness levels are:

     Automake will check for only those things which are absolutely
     required for proper operations.  For instance, whereas GNU
     standards dictate the existence of a `NEWS' file, it will not be
     required in this mode.  The name comes from the fact that Automake
     is intended to be used for GNU programs; these relaxed rules are
     not the standard mode of operation.

     Automake will check--as much as possible--for compliance to the GNU
     standards for packages.  This is the default.

     Automake will check for compliance to the as-yet-unwritten "Gnits
     standards".  These are based on the GNU standards, but are even
     more detailed.  Unless you are a Gnits standards contributor, it is
     recommended that you avoid this option until such time as the Gnits
     standard is actually published (which may never happen).

   For more information on the precise implications of the strictness
level, see *note Gnits::.

   Automake also has a special "cygnus" mode which is similar to
strictness but handled differently.  This mode is useful for packages
which are put into a "Cygnus" style tree (e.g., the GCC tree).  For
more information on this mode, see *note Cygnus::.

File:,  Node: Uniform,  Next: Canonicalization,  Prev: Strictness,  Up: Generalities

2.3 The Uniform Naming Scheme

Automake macros (from here on referred to as _variables_) generally
follow a "uniform naming scheme" that makes it easy to decide how
programs (and other derived objects) are built, and how they are
installed.  This scheme also supports `configure' time determination of
what should be built.

   At `make' time, certain variables are used to determine which
objects are to be built.  The variable names are made of several pieces
which are concatenated together.

   The piece which tells automake what is being built is commonly called
the "primary".  For instance, the primary `PROGRAMS' holds a list of
programs which are to be compiled and linked.

   A different set of names is used to decide where the built objects
should be installed.  These names are prefixes to the primary which
indicate which standard directory should be used as the installation
directory.  The standard directory names are given in the GNU standards
(*note Directory Variables: (standards)Directory Variables.).  Automake
extends this list with `pkglibdir', `pkgincludedir', and `pkgdatadir';
these are the same as the non-`pkg' versions, but with `@PACKAGE@'
appended.  For instance, `pkglibdir' is defined as

   For each primary, there is one additional variable named by
prepending `EXTRA_' to the primary name.  This variable is used to list
objects which may or may not be built, depending on what `configure'
decides.  This variable is required because Automake must statically
know the entire list of objects that may be built in order to generate
a `' that will work in all cases.

   For instance, `cpio' decides at configure time which programs are
built.  Some of the programs are installed in `bindir', and some are
installed in `sbindir':

     EXTRA_PROGRAMS = mt rmt
     bin_PROGRAMS = cpio pax

   Defining a primary without a prefix as a variable, e.g., `PROGRAMS',
is an error.

   Note that the common `dir' suffix is left off when constructing the
variable names; thus one writes `bin_PROGRAMS' and not

   Not every sort of object can be installed in every directory.
Automake will flag those attempts it finds in error.  Automake will
also diagnose obvious misspellings in directory names.

   Sometimes the standard directories--even as augmented by Automake--
are not enough.  In particular it is sometimes useful, for clarity, to
install objects in a subdirectory of some predefined directory.  To this
end, Automake allows you to extend the list of possible installation
directories.  A given prefix (e.g. `zar') is valid if a variable of the
same name with `dir' appended is defined (e.g. `zardir').

   For instance, until HTML support is part of Automake, you could use
this to install raw HTML documentation:

     htmldir = $(prefix)/html
     html_DATA = automake.html

   The special prefix `noinst' indicates that the objects in question
should be built but not installed at all.  This is usually used for
objects required to build the rest of your package, for instance static
libraries (*note A Library::), or helper scripts.

   The special prefix `check' indicates that the objects in question
should not be built until the `make check' command is run.  Those
objects are not installed either.

   The current primary names are `PROGRAMS', `LIBRARIES', `LISP',

   Some primaries also allow additional prefixes which control other
aspects of `automake''s behavior.  The currently defined prefixes are
`dist_', `nodist_', and `nobase_'.  These prefixes are explained later
(*note Program and Library Variables::).

File:,  Node: Canonicalization,  Next: User Variables,  Prev: Uniform,  Up: Generalities

2.4 How derived variables are named

Sometimes a Makefile variable name is derived from some text the
maintainer supplies.  For instance, a program name listed in
`_PROGRAMS' is rewritten into the name of a `_SOURCES' variable.  In
cases like this, Automake canonicalizes the text, so that program names
and the like do not have to follow Makefile macro naming rules.  All
characters in the name except for letters, numbers, the strudel (@),
and the underscore are turned into underscores when making macro

   For example, if your program is named `sniff-glue', the derived
variable name would be `sniff_glue_SOURCES', not `sniff-glue_SOURCES'.
Similarly the sources for a library named `libmumble++.a' should be
listed in the `libmumble___a_SOURCES' variable.

   The strudel is an addition, to make the use of Autoconf
substitutions in macro names less obfuscating.

File:,  Node: User Variables,  Next: Auxiliary Programs,  Prev: Canonicalization,  Up: Generalities

2.5 Variables reserved for the user

Some `Makefile' variables are reserved by the GNU Coding Standards for
the use of the "user" - the person building the package.  For instance,
`CFLAGS' is one such variable.

   Sometimes package developers are tempted to set user variables such
as `CFLAGS' because it appears to make their job easier - they don't
have to introduce a second variable into every target.

   However, the package itself should never set a user variable,
particularly not to include switches which are required for proper
compilation of the package.  Since these variables are documented as
being for the package builder, that person rightfully expects to be able
to override any of these variables at build time.

   To get around this problem, automake introduces an automake-specific
shadow variable for each user flag variable.  (Shadow variables are not
introduced for variables like `CC', where they would make no sense.)
The shadow variable is named by prepending `AM_' to the user variable's
name.  For instance, the shadow variable for `YFLAGS' is `AM_YFLAGS'.

File:,  Node: Auxiliary Programs,  Prev: User Variables,  Up: Generalities

2.6 Programs automake might require

Automake sometimes requires helper programs so that the generated
`Makefile' can do its work properly.  There are a fairly large number
of them, and we list them here.

     These two files are used by the automatic de-ANSI-fication support
     (*note ANSI::).

     This is a wrapper for compilers which don't accept both `-c' and
     `-o' at the same time.  It is only used when absolutely required.
     Such compilers are rare.

     These programs compute the canonical triplets for the given build,
     host, or target architecture.  These programs are updated regulary
     to support new architectures and fix probes broken by changes in
     new kernel versions.  You are encouraged to fetch the latest
     versions of these files from `'
     before making a release.

     This program understands how to run a compiler so that it will
     generate not only the desired output but also dependency
     information which is then used by the automatic dependency
     tracking feature.

     This program is used to byte-compile Emacs Lisp code.

     This is a replacement for the `install' program which works on
     platforms where `install' is unavailable or unusable.

     This script is used to generate a `version.texi' file.  It examines
     a file and prints some date information about it.

     This wraps a number of programs which are typically only required
     by maintainers.  If the program in question doesn't exist,
     `missing' prints an informative warning and attempts to fix things
     so that the build can continue.

     This works around the fact that `mkdir -p' is not portable.

     This is used to byte-compile Python scripts.

     Not a program, this file is required for `make dvi' to work when
     Texinfo sources are in the package.

     This program wraps `lex' and `yacc' and ensures that, for
     instance, multiple `yacc' instances can be invoked in a single
     directory in parallel.

File:,  Node: Examples,  Next: Invoking Automake,  Prev: Generalities,  Up: Top

3 Some example packages

* Menu:

* Complete::                    A simple example, start to finish
* Hello::                       A classic program
* etags::                       Building etags and ctags

File:,  Node: Complete,  Next: Hello,  Prev: Examples,  Up: Examples

3.1 A simple example, start to finish

Let's suppose you just finished writing `zardoz', a program to make
your head float from vortex to vortex.  You've been using Autoconf to
provide a portability framework, but your `'s have been
ad-hoc.  You want to make them bulletproof, so you turn to Automake.

   The first step is to update your `' to include the
commands that `automake' needs.  The way to do this is to add an
`AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' call just after `AC_INIT':

     AC_INIT(zardoz, 1.0)

   Since your program doesn't have any complicating factors (e.g., it
doesn't use `gettext', it doesn't want to build a shared library),
you're done with this part.  That was easy!

   Now you must regenerate `configure'.  But to do that, you'll need to
tell `autoconf' how to find the new macro you've used.  The easiest way
to do this is to use the `aclocal' program to generate your
`aclocal.m4' for you.  But wait... maybe you already have an
`aclocal.m4', because you had to write some hairy macros for your
program.  The `aclocal' program lets you put your own macros into
`acinclude.m4', so simply rename and then run:

     mv aclocal.m4 acinclude.m4

   Now it is time to write your `' for `zardoz'.  Since
`zardoz' is a user program, you want to install it where the rest of
the user programs go: `bindir'.  Additionally, `zardoz' has some
Texinfo documentation.  Your `' script uses
`AC_REPLACE_FUNCS', so you need to link against `@LIBOBJS@'.  So here's
what you'd write:

     bin_PROGRAMS = zardoz
     zardoz_SOURCES = main.c head.c float.c vortex9.c gun.c
     zardoz_LDADD = @LIBOBJS@

     info_TEXINFOS = zardoz.texi

   Now you can run `automake --add-missing' to generate your
`' and grab any auxiliary files you might need, and you're

File:,  Node: Hello,  Next: etags,  Prev: Complete,  Up: Examples

3.2 A classic program

GNU hello ( is renowned
for its classic simplicity and versatility.  This section shows how
Automake could be used with the GNU Hello package.  The examples below
are from the latest beta version of GNU Hello, but with all of the
maintainer-only code stripped out, as well as all copyright comments.

   Of course, GNU Hello is somewhat more featureful than your
traditional two-liner.  GNU Hello is internationalized, does option
processing, and has a manual and a test suite.

   Here is the `' from GNU Hello:

     dnl Process this file with autoconf to produce a configure script.
     AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(hello, 1.3.11)

     dnl Set of available languages.
     ALL_LINGUAS="de fr es ko nl no pl pt sl sv"

     dnl Checks for programs.

     dnl Checks for libraries.

     dnl Checks for header files.
     AC_HAVE_HEADERS(string.h fcntl.h sys/file.h sys/param.h)

     dnl Checks for library functions.

     dnl Check for st_blksize in struct stat

     dnl internationalization macros
     AC_OUTPUT([Makefile doc/Makefile intl/Makefile po/ \
                src/Makefile tests/Makefile tests/hello],
        [chmod +x tests/hello])

   The `AM_' macros are provided by Automake (or the Gettext library);
the rest are standard Autoconf macros.

   The top-level `':

     EXTRA_DIST = BUGS ChangeLog.O
     SUBDIRS = doc intl po src tests

   As you can see, all the work here is really done in subdirectories.

   The `po' and `intl' directories are automatically generated using
`gettextize'; they will not be discussed here.

   In `doc/' we see:

     info_TEXINFOS = hello.texi
     hello_TEXINFOS = gpl.texi

   This is sufficient to build, install, and distribute the GNU Hello

   Here is `tests/':

     TESTS = hello
     EXTRA_DIST = testdata

   The script `hello' is generated by `configure', and is the only test
case.  `make check' will run this test.

   Last we have `src/', where all the real work is done:

     bin_PROGRAMS = hello
     hello_SOURCES = hello.c version.c getopt.c getopt1.c getopt.h system.h
     hello_LDADD = @INTLLIBS@ @ALLOCA@
     localedir = $(datadir)/locale
     INCLUDES = -I../intl -DLOCALEDIR=\"$(localedir)\"

File:,  Node: etags,  Prev: Hello,  Up: Examples

3.3 Building etags and ctags

Here is another, trickier example.  It shows how to generate two
programs (`ctags' and `etags') from the same source file (`etags.c').
The difficult part is that each compilation of `etags.c' requires
different `cpp' flags.

     bin_PROGRAMS = etags ctags
     ctags_SOURCES =
     ctags_LDADD = ctags.o

     etags.o: etags.c
             $(COMPILE) -DETAGS_REGEXPS -c etags.c

     ctags.o: etags.c
             $(COMPILE) -DCTAGS -o ctags.o -c etags.c

   Note that there is no `etags_SOURCES' definition.  Automake will
implicitly assume that there is a source file named `etags.c', and
define rules to compile `etags.o' and link `etags'.  The `etags.o:
etags.c' rule supplied by the above `', will override the
Automake generated rule to build `etags.o'.

   `ctags_SOURCES' is defined to be empty--that way no implicit value
is substituted.  Because we have not listed the source of `ctags', we
have to tell Automake how to link the program.  This is the purpose of
the `ctags_LDADD' line.  A `ctags_DEPENDENCIES' variable, holding the
dependencies of the `ctags' target will be automatically generated by
Automake from the contant of `ctags_LDADD'.

   The above rules won't work if your compiler doesn't accept both `-c'
and `-o'.  The simplest fix for this is to introduce a bogus dependency
(to avoid problems with a parallel `make'):

     etags.o: etags.c ctags.o
             $(COMPILE) -DETAGS_REGEXPS -c etags.c

     ctags.o: etags.c
             $(COMPILE) -DCTAGS -c etags.c && mv etags.o ctags.o

   Also, these explicit rules do not work if the de-ANSI-fication
feature is used (*note ANSI::).  Supporting de-ANSI-fication requires a
little more work:

     etags._o: etags._c ctags.o
             $(COMPILE) -DETAGS_REGEXPS -c etags.c

     ctags._o: etags._c
             $(COMPILE) -DCTAGS -c etags.c && mv etags._o ctags.o

   As it turns out, there is also a much easier way to do this same
task.  Some of the above techniques are useful enough that we've kept
the example in the manual.  However if you were to build `etags' and
`ctags' in real life, you would probably use per-program compilation
flags, like so:

     bin_PROGRAMS = ctags etags

     ctags_SOURCES = etags.c
     ctags_CFLAGS = -DCTAGS

     etags_SOURCES = etags.c

   In this case Automake will cause `etags.c' to be compiled twice,
with different flags.  De-ANSI-fication will work automatically.  In
this instance, the names of the object files would be chosen by
automake; they would be `ctags-etags.o' and `etags-etags.o'.  (The name
of the object files rarely matters.)

File:,  Node: Invoking Automake,  Next: configure,  Prev: Examples,  Up: Top

4 Creating a `'

To create all the `'s for a package, run the `automake'
program in the top level directory, with no arguments.  `automake' will
automatically find each appropriate `' (by scanning
`'; *note configure::) and generate the corresponding
`'.  Note that `automake' has a rather simplistic view of
what constitutes a package; it assumes that a package has only one
`', at the top.  If your package has multiple
`'s, then you must run `automake' in each directory holding
a `'.  (Alteratively, you may rely on Autoconf's
`autoreconf', which is able to recurse your package tree and run
`automake' where appropriate.)

   You can optionally give `automake' an argument; `.am' is appended to
the argument and the result is used as the name of the input file.
This feature is generally only used to automatically rebuild an
out-of-date `'.  Note that `automake' must always be run
from the topmost directory of a project, even if being used to
regenerate the `' in some subdirectory.  This is necessary
because `automake' must scan `', and because `automake'
uses the knowledge that a `' is in a subdirectory to change
its behavior in some cases.

   `automake' accepts the following options:

     Automake requires certain common files to exist in certain
     situations; for instance `config.guess' is required if
     `' runs `AC_CANONICAL_HOST'.  Automake is distributed
     with several of these files (*note Auxiliary Programs::); this
     option will cause the missing ones to be automatically added to
     the package, whenever possible.  In general if Automake tells you
     a file is missing, try using this option.  By default Automake
     tries to make a symbolic link pointing to its own copy of the
     missing file; this can be changed with `--copy'.

     Look for Automake data files in directory DIR instead of in the
     installation directory.  This is typically used for debugging.

     When used with `--add-missing', causes installed files to be
     copied.  The default is to make a symbolic link.

     Causes the generated `'s to follow Cygnus rules, instead
     of GNU or Gnits rules.  For more information, see *note Cygnus::.

     When used with `--add-missing', causes standard files to be
     reinstalled even if they already exist in the source tree.  This
     involves removing the file from the source tree before creating
     the new symlink (or, with `--copy', copying the new file).

     Set the global strictness to `foreign'.  For more information, see
     *note Strictness::.

     Set the global strictness to `gnits'.  For more information, see
     *note Gnits::.

     Set the global strictness to `gnu'.  For more information, see
     *note Gnits::.  This is the default strictness.

     Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

     This disables the dependency tracking feature in generated
     `Makefile's; see *note Dependencies::.

     This enables the dependency tracking feature.  This feature is
     enabled by default.  This option is provided for historical
     reasons only and probably should not be used.

     Ordinarily `automake' creates all `'s mentioned in
     `'.  This option causes it to only update those
     `'s which are out of date with respect to one of their

`-o DIR'
     Put the generated `' in the directory DIR.  Ordinarily
     each `' is created in the directory of the
     corresponding `'.  This option is deprecated and will be
     removed in a future release.

     Cause Automake to print information about which files are being
     read or created.

     Print the version number of Automake and exit.

     `--Werror' will cause all warnings issued by `automake' to become
     errors.  Errors affect the exit status of `automake', while
     warnings do not.  `--Wno-error', the default, causes warnings to be
     treated as warnings only.

File:,  Node: configure,  Next: Top level,  Prev: Invoking Automake,  Up: Top

5 Scanning `'

Automake scans the package's `' to determine certain
information about the package.  Some `autoconf' macros are required and
some variables must be defined in `'.  Automake will also
use information from `' to further tailor its output.

   Automake also supplies some Autoconf macros to make the maintenance
easier.  These macros can automatically be put into your `aclocal.m4'
using the `aclocal' program.

* Menu:

* Requirements::                Configuration requirements
* Optional::                    Other things Automake recognizes
* Invoking aclocal::            Auto-generating aclocal.m4
* Macros::                      Autoconf macros supplied with Automake
* Extending aclocal::           Writing your own aclocal macros

File:,  Node: Requirements,  Next: Optional,  Prev: configure,  Up: configure

5.1 Configuration requirements

The one real requirement of Automake is that your `' call
`AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE'.  This macro does several things which are required
for proper Automake operation (*note Macros::).

   Here are the other macros which Automake requires but which are not

     Automake uses these to determine which files to create (*note
     Creating Output Files: (autoconf)Output.).  A listed file is
     considered to be an Automake generated `Makefile' if there exists
     a file with the same name and the `.am' extension appended.
     Typically, `AC_CONFIG_FILES([foo/Makefile])' will cause Automake to
     generate `foo/' if `foo/' exists.

     Other listed files are treated differently.  Currently the only
     difference is that an Automake `Makefile' is removed by `make
     distclean', while other files are removed by `make clean'.

File:,  Node: Optional,  Next: Invoking aclocal,  Prev: Requirements,  Up: configure

5.2 Other things Automake recognizes

Automake will also recognize the use of certain macros and tailor the
generated `' appropriately.  Currently recognized macros and
their effects are:

     Automake requires the use of `AM_CONFIG_HEADER' (*note Macros::),
     which is similar to `AC_CONFIG_HEADER' (*note Configuration Header
     Files: (autoconf)Configuration Headers.), but does some useful
     Automake-specific work.

     Automake will look for various helper scripts, such as
     `mkinstalldirs', in the directory named in this macro invocation.
     If not seen, the scripts are looked for in their `standard'
     locations (either the top source directory, or in the source
     directory corresponding to the current `', whichever is
     appropriate).  *Note Finding `configure' Input: (autoconf)Input.  FIXME:
     give complete list of things looked for in this directory

     Automake will insert definitions for the variables defined by
     `AC_PATH_XTRA' into each `' that builds a C program or
     library.  *Note System Services: (autoconf)System Services.

     Automake will ensure that `config.guess' and `config.sub' exist.
     Also, the `Makefile' variables `host_alias' and `host_triplet' are
     introduced.  See *note Getting the Canonical System Type:

     This is similar to `AC_CANONICAL_HOST', but also defines the
     `Makefile' variables `build_alias' and `target_alias'.  *Note
     Getting the Canonical System Type: (autoconf)Canonicalizing.

     Automake will ensure that the appropriate dependencies are
     generated for the objects corresponding to these macros.  Also,
     Automake will verify that the appropriate source files are part of
     the distribution.  Note that Automake does not come with any of
     the C sources required to use these macros, so `automake -a' will
     not install the sources.  *Note A Library::, for more information.
     Also, see *note Particular Function Checks: (autoconf)Particular

     Automake will detect statements which put `.o' files into
     `LIBOBJS', or pass `.o' files to `AC_LIBOBJ', and will treat these
     additional files as if they were discovered via
     `AC_REPLACE_FUNCS'.  Similarly, Automake will also distribute file
     listed in `AC_LIBSOURCE' and `AC_LIBSOURCES'.

     Note that assignments to `LIBOBJS' is a construct which is being
     phased out; they will be ignored in a future release of Automake.
     You should call the `AC_LIBOBJ' macro instead.  *Note Generic
     Function Checks: (autoconf)Generic Functions.

     This is required if any libraries are built in the package.  *Note
     Particular Program Checks: (autoconf)Particular Programs.

     This is required if any C++ source is included.  *Note Particular
     Program Checks: (autoconf)Particular Programs.

     This is required if any Fortran 77 source is included.  This macro
     is distributed with Autoconf version 2.13 and later.  *Note
     Particular Program Checks: (autoconf)Particular Programs.

     This is required for programs and shared libraries that are a
     mixture of languages that include Fortran 77 (*note Mixing Fortran
     77 With C and C++::).  *Note Autoconf macros supplied with
     Automake: Macros.

     Automake will turn on processing for `libtool' (*note
     Introduction: (libtool)Top.).

     If a Yacc source file is seen, then you must either use this macro
     or define the variable `YACC' in `'.  The former is
     preferred (*note Particular Program Checks: (autoconf)Particular

     If a Lex source file is seen, then this macro must be used.  *Note
     Particular Program Checks: (autoconf)Particular Programs.

     This is required when using automatic de-ANSI-fication; see *note

     This macro is required for packages which use GNU gettext (*note
     gettext::).  It is distributed with gettext.  If Automake sees
     this macro it ensures that the package meets some of gettext's

     This macro adds a `--enable-maintainer-mode' option to
     `configure'.  If this is used, `automake' will cause
     `maintainer-only' rules to be turned off by default in the
     generated `'s. This macro defines the `MAINTAINER_MODE'
     conditional, which you can use in your own `'.

     For each of these macros, the first argument is automatically
     defined as a variable in each generated `'.  *Note
     Setting Output Variables: (autoconf)Setting Output Variables, and
     *note Generic Program Checks: (autoconf)Generic Programs.

File:,  Node: Invoking aclocal,  Next: Macros,  Prev: Optional,  Up: configure

5.3 Auto-generating aclocal.m4

Automake includes a number of Autoconf macros which can be used in your
package; some of them are actually required by Automake in certain
situations.  These macros must be defined in your `aclocal.m4';
otherwise they will not be seen by `autoconf'.

   The `aclocal' program will automatically generate `aclocal.m4' files
based on the contents of `'.  This provides a convenient
way to get Automake-provided macros, without having to search around.
Also, the `aclocal' mechanism allows other packages to supply their own

   At startup, `aclocal' scans all the `.m4' files it can find, looking
for macro definitions.  Then it scans `'.  Any mention of
one of the macros found in the first step causes that macro, and any
macros it in turn requires, to be put into `aclocal.m4'.

   The contents of `acinclude.m4', if it exists, are also automatically
included in `aclocal.m4'.  This is useful for incorporating local
macros into `configure'.

   `aclocal' tries to be smart about looking for new `AC_DEFUN's in the
files it scans.  It also tries to copy the full text of the scanned
file into `aclocal.m4', including both `#' and `dnl' comments.  If you
want to make a comment which will be completely ignored by `aclocal',
use `##' as the comment leader.

   `aclocal' accepts the following options:

     Look for the macro files in DIR instead of the installation
     directory.  This is typically used for debugging.

     Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

`-I DIR'
     Add the directory DIR to the list of directories searched for
     `.m4' files.

     Cause the output to be put into FILE instead of `aclocal.m4'.

     Prints the name of the directory which `aclocal' will search to
     find third-party `.m4' files.  When this option is given, normal
     processing is suppressed.  This option can be used by a package to
     determine where to install a macro file.

     Print the names of the files it examines.

     Print the version number of Automake and exit.

File:,  Node: Macros,  Next: Extending aclocal,  Prev: Invoking aclocal,  Up: configure

5.4 Autoconf macros supplied with Automake

Automake ships with several Autoconf macros that you can use from your
`'.  When you use one of them it will be included by
`aclocal' in `aclocal.m4'.

* Menu:

* Public macros::               Macros that you can use.
* Private macros::              Macros that you should not use.

File:,  Node: Public macros,  Next: Private macros,  Prev: Macros,  Up: Macros

5.4.1 Public macros

     Automake will generate rules to automatically regenerate the config

     This is used when a "multilib" library is being built.  The first
     optional argument is the name of the `Makefile' being generated; it
     defaults to `Makefile'.  The second option argument is used to find
     the top source directory; it defaults to the empty string
     (generally this should not be used unless you are familiar with
     the internals).  *Note Multilibs::.

     Check to see if function prototypes are understood by the
     compiler.  If so, define `PROTOTYPES' and set the output variables
     `U' and `ANSI2KNR' to the empty string.  Otherwise, set `U' to `_'
     and `ANSI2KNR' to `./ansi2knr'.  Automake uses these values to
     implement automatic de-ANSI-fication.

     If the use of `TIOCGWINSZ' requires `<sys/ioctl.h>', then define
     `GWINSZ_IN_SYS_IOCTL'.  Otherwise `TIOCGWINSZ' can be found in

     Runs many macros required for proper operation of the generated

     This macro has two forms, the second of which has two required
     arguments: the package and the version number.  This latter form is
     obsolete because the PACKAGE and VERSION can be obtained from
     Autoconf's `AC_INIT' macro (which itself has an old and a new

     If your `' has:
          AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(mumble, 1.5)
     you can modernize it as follow:
          AC_INIT(mumble, 1.5)

     Note that if you're upgrading your `' from an earlier
     version of Automake, it is not always correct to simply move the
     package and version arguments from `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' directly to
     `AC_INIT', as in the example above.  The first argument of
     `AC_INIT' is the name of your package (e.g. `GNU Automake'), not
     the tarball name (e.g. `automake') you used to pass to
     `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE'.  Autoconf's rule to derive a tarball name from
     the package name should work for most but not all packages.
     Especially, if your tarball name is not all lower case, you will
     have to use the four-argument form of `AC_INIT' (supported in
     Autoconf versions greater than 2.52g).

     When `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' is called with a single argument, it is
     interpreted as a space-separated list of Automake options which
     should be applied to every `' in the tree.  The effect
     is as if each option were listed in `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS'.

     By default this macro `AC_DEFINE''s `PACKAGE' and `VERSION'.  This
     can be avoided by passing the `no-define' option, as in:
          AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE([gnits 1.5 no-define dist-bzip2])
     or by passing a third non-empty argument to the obsolete form.

     Searches for the program `emacs', and, if found, sets the output
     variable `lispdir' to the full path to Emacs' site-lisp directory.

     Note that this test assumes the `emacs' found to be a version that
     supports Emacs Lisp (such as GNU Emacs or XEmacs).  Other emacsen
     can cause this test to hang (some, like old versions of MicroEmacs,
     start up in interactive mode, requiring `C-x C-c' to exit, which
     is hardly obvious for a non-emacs user).  In most cases, however,
     you should be able to use `C-c' to kill the test.  In order to
     avoid problems, you can set `EMACS' to "no" in the environment, or
     use the `--with-lispdir' option to `configure' to explictly set
     the correct path (if you're sure you have an `emacs' that supports
     Emacs Lisp.

     Use this macro when you have assembly code in your project.  This
     will choose the assembler for you (by default the C compiler) and
     set `CCAS', and will also set `CCASFLAGS' if required.

     This is like `AC_PROG_CC_C_O', but it generates its results in the
     manner required by automake.  You must use this instead of
     `AC_PROG_CC_C_O' when you need this functionality.

     If the C compiler is not in ANSI C mode by default, try to add an
     option to output variable `CC' to make it so.  This macro tries
     various options that select ANSI C on some system or another.  It
     considers the compiler to be in ANSI C mode if it handles function
     prototypes correctly.

     If you use this macro, you should check after calling it whether
     the C compiler has been set to accept ANSI C; if not, the shell
     variable `am_cv_prog_cc_stdc' is set to `no'.  If you wrote your
     source code in ANSI C, you can make an un-ANSIfied copy of it by
     using the `ansi2knr' option (*note ANSI::).

     Like `AC_PROG_LEX' (*note Particular Program Checks:
     (autoconf)Particular Programs.), but uses the `missing' script on
     systems that do not have `lex'.  `HP-UX 10' is one such system.

     This macro finds the `gcj' program or causes an error.  It sets
     `GCJ' and `GCJFLAGS'.  `gcj' is the Java front-end to the GNU
     Compiler Collection.

     Check to see if POSIX termios headers and functions are available
     on the system.  If so, set the shell variable
     `am_cv_sys_posix_termios' to `yes'.  If not, set the variable to

     Add support for the dmalloc
     ( package.  If
     the user configures with `--with-dmalloc', then define
     `WITH_DMALLOC' and add `-ldmalloc' to `LIBS'.

     Adds `--with-regex' to the `configure' command line.  If specified
     (the default), then the `regex' regular expression library is
     used, `regex.o' is put into `LIBOBJS', and `WITH_REGEX' is
     defined.  If `--without-regex' is given, then the `rx' regular
     expression library is used, and `rx.o' is put into `LIBOBJS'.

File:,  Node: Private macros,  Prev: Public macros,  Up: Macros

5.4.2 Private macros

The following macros are private macros you should not call directly.
They are called by the other public macros when appropriate.  Do not
rely on them, as they might be changed in a future version.  Consider
them as implementation details; or better, do not consider them at all:
skip this section!

     These macros are used to implement automake's automatic dependency
     tracking scheme.  They are called automatically by automake when
     required, and there should be no need to invoke them manually.

     This macro is used to discover how the user's `make' handles
     `include' statements.  This macro is automatically invoked when
     needed; there should be no need to invoke it manually.

     This is used to find a version of `install' which can be used to
     `strip' a program at installation time.  This macro is
     automatically included when required.

     This checks to make sure that a file created in the build
     directory is newer than a file in the source directory.  This can
     fail on systems where the clock is set incorrectly.  This macro is
     automatically run from `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE'.

File:,  Node: Extending aclocal,  Prev: Macros,  Up: configure

5.5 Writing your own aclocal macros

The `aclocal' program doesn't have any built-in knowledge of any
macros, so it is easy to extend it with your own macros.

   This is mostly used for libraries which want to supply their own
Autoconf macros for use by other programs.  For instance the `gettext'
library supplies a macro `AM_GNU_GETTEXT' which should be used by any
package using `gettext'.  When the library is installed, it installs
this macro so that `aclocal' will find it.

   A file of macros should be a series of `AC_DEFUN''s.  The `aclocal'
programs also understands `AC_REQUIRE', so it is safe to put each macro
in a separate file.  *Note Prerequisite Macros: (autoconf)Prerequisite
Macros, and *note Macro Definitions: (autoconf)Macro Definitions.

   A macro file's name should end in `.m4'.  Such files should be
installed in ``aclocal --print-ac-dir`' (which usually happens to be

File:,  Node: Top level,  Next: Alternative,  Prev: configure,  Up: Top

6 The top-level `'

In packages with subdirectories, the top level `' must tell
Automake which subdirectories are to be built.  This is done via the
`SUBDIRS' variable.

   The `SUBDIRS' macro holds a list of subdirectories in which building
of various sorts can occur.  Many targets (e.g. `all') in the generated
`Makefile' will run both locally and in all specified subdirectories.
Note that the directories listed in `SUBDIRS' are not required to
contain `'s; only `Makefile's (after configuration).  This
allows inclusion of libraries from packages which do not use Automake
(such as `gettext').  The directories mentioned in `SUBDIRS' must be
direct children of the current directory.  For instance, you cannot put
`src/subdir' into `SUBDIRS'.

   In packages that use subdirectories, the top-level `' is
often very short.  For instance, here is the `' from the GNU
Hello distribution:

     EXTRA_DIST = BUGS ChangeLog.O README-alpha
     SUBDIRS = doc intl po src tests

   It is possible to override the `SUBDIRS' variable if, like in the
case of GNU `Inetutils', you want to only build a subset of the entire
package.  In your `' include:


   Then in your `' you can specify:

     MY_SUBDIRS="src doc lib po"

   (Note that we don't use the variable name `SUBDIRS' in our
`'; that would cause Automake to believe that every
`' should recurse into the listed subdirectories.)

   The upshot of this is that Automake is tricked into building the
package to take the subdirs, but doesn't actually bind that list until
`configure' is run.

   Although the `SUBDIRS' macro can contain configure substitutions
(e.g. `@DIRS@'); Automake itself does not actually examine the contents
of this variable.

   If `SUBDIRS' is defined, then your `' must include
`AC_PROG_MAKE_SET'.  When Automake invokes `make' in a subdirectory, it
uses the value of the `MAKE' variable.  It passes the value of the
variable `AM_MAKEFLAGS' to the `make' invocation; this can be set in
`' if there are flags you must always pass to `make'.

   The use of `SUBDIRS' is not restricted to just the top-level
`'.  Automake can be used to construct packages of arbitrary

   By default, Automake generates `Makefiles' which work depth-first
(`postfix').  However, it is possible to change this ordering.  You can
do this by putting `.' into `SUBDIRS'.  For instance, putting `.'
first will cause a `prefix' ordering of directories.  All `clean'
targets are run in reverse order of build targets.

   Sometimes, such as when running `make dist', you want all possible
subdirectories to be examined.  In this case Automake will use
`DIST_SUBDIRS', instead of `SUBDIRS', to determine where to recurse.
This variable will also be used when the user runs `distclean' or
`maintainer-clean'.  It should be set to the full list of
subdirectories in the project.  If this macro is not set, Automake will
attempt to set it for you.

File:,  Node: Alternative,  Next: Rebuilding,  Prev: Top level,  Up: Top

7 An Alternative Approach to Subdirectories

If you've ever read Peter Miller's excellent paper, Recursive Make
Considered Harmful
(, the
preceding section on the use of subdirectories will probably come as
unwelcome advice.  For those who haven't read the paper, Miller's main
thesis is that recursive `make' invocations are both slow and

   Automake provides sufficient cross-directory support (1) to enable
you to write a single `' for a complex multi-directory

   By default an installable file specified in a subdirectory will have
its directory name stripped before installation.  For instance, in this
example, the header file will be installed as `$(includedir)/stdio.h':

     include_HEADERS = inc/stdio.h

   However, the `nobase_' prefix can be used to circumvent this path
stripping.  In this example, the header file will be installed as

     nobase_include_HEADERS = sys/types.h

   `nobase_' should be specified first when used in conjonction with
either `dist_' or `nodist_' (*note Dist::).  For instance:

     nobase_dist_pkgdata_DATA = images/vortex.pgm

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) We believe.  This work is new and there are probably warts.
*Note Introduction::, for information on reporting bugs.

File:,  Node: Rebuilding,  Next: Programs,  Prev: Alternative,  Up: Top

8 Rebuilding Makefiles

Automake generates rules to automatically rebuild `Makefile's,
`configure', and other derived files like `'.

   If you are using `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' in `', then these
automatic rebuilding rules are only enabled in maintainer mode.

   Sometimes you need to run `aclocal' with an argument like `-I' to
tell it where to find `.m4' files.  Since sometimes `make' will
automatically run `aclocal', you need a way to specify these arguments.
You can do this by defining `ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS'; this holds arguments
which are passed verbatim to `aclocal'.  This macro is only useful in
the top-level `'.

File:,  Node: Programs,  Next: Other objects,  Prev: Rebuilding,  Up: Top

9 Building Programs and Libraries

A large part of Automake's functionality is dedicated to making it easy
to build programs and libraries.

* Menu:

* A Program::                   Building a program
* A Library::                   Building a library
* A Shared Library::            Building a Libtool library
* Program and Library Variables::  Variables controlling program and
                                library builds
* LIBOBJS::                     Special handling for LIBOBJS and ALLOCA
* Program variables::           Variables used when building a program
* Yacc and Lex::                Yacc and Lex support
* C++ Support::
* Assembly Support::
* Fortran 77 Support::
* Java Support::
* Support for Other Languages::
* ANSI::                        Automatic de-ANSI-fication
* Dependencies::                Automatic dependency tracking
* EXEEXT::                      Support for executable extensions

File:,  Node: A Program,  Next: A Library,  Prev: Programs,  Up: Programs

9.1 Building a program

In order to build a program, you need to tell Automake which sources
are part of it, and which libraries it should be linked with.

   This section also covers conditional compilation of sources or
programs.  Most of the comments about these also apply to libraries
(*note A Library::) and Libtool libraries (*note A Shared Library::).

* Menu:

* Program Sources::             Defining program sources
* Linking::                     Linking with libraries or extra objects
* Conditional Sources::         Handling conditional sources
* Conditional Programs::        Building program conditionally

File:,  Node: Program Sources,  Next: Linking,  Prev: A Program,  Up: A Program

9.1.1 Defining program sources

In a directory containing source that gets built into a program (as
opposed to a library or a script), the `PROGRAMS' primary is used.
Programs can be installed in `bindir', `sbindir', `libexecdir',
`pkglibdir', or not at all (`noinst').  They can also be built only for
`make check', in which case the prefix is `check'.

   For instance:

     bin_PROGRAMS = hello

   In this simple case, the resulting `' will contain code
to generate a program named `hello'.

   Associated with each program are several assisting variables which
are named after the program.  These variables are all optional, and have
reasonable defaults.  Each variable, its use, and default is spelled out
below; we use the "hello" example throughout.

   The variable `hello_SOURCES' is used to specify which source files
get built into an executable:

     hello_SOURCES = hello.c version.c getopt.c getopt1.c getopt.h system.h

   This causes each mentioned `.c' file to be compiled into the
corresponding `.o'.  Then all are linked to produce `hello'.

   If `hello_SOURCES' is not specified, then it defaults to the single
file `hello.c'; that is, the default is to compile a single C file
whose base name is the name of the program itself.  (This is a terrible
default but we are stuck with it for historical reasons.)

   Multiple programs can be built in a single directory.  Multiple
programs can share a single source file, which must be listed in each
`_SOURCES' definition.

   Header files listed in a `_SOURCES' definition will be included in
the distribution but otherwise ignored.  In case it isn't obvious, you
should not include the header file generated by `configure' in a
`_SOURCES' variable; this file should not be distributed.  Lex (`.l')
and Yacc (`.y') files can also be listed; see *note Yacc and Lex::.

File:,  Node: Linking,  Next: Conditional Sources,  Prev: Program Sources,  Up: A Program

9.1.2 Linking the program

If you need to link against libraries that are not found by
`configure', you can use `LDADD' to do so.  This variable is used to
specify additional objects or libraries to link with; it is
inappropriate for specifying specific linker flags, you should use
`AM_LDFLAGS' for this purpose.

   Sometimes, multiple programs are built in one directory but do not
share the same link-time requirements.  In this case, you can use the
`PROG_LDADD' variable (where PROG is the name of the program as it
appears in some `_PROGRAMS' variable, and usually written in lowercase)
to override the global `LDADD'.  If this variable exists for a given
program, then that program is not linked using `LDADD'.

   For instance, in GNU cpio, `pax', `cpio' and `mt' are linked against
the library `libcpio.a'.  However, `rmt' is built in the same
directory, and has no such link requirement.  Also, `mt' and `rmt' are
only built on certain architectures.  Here is what cpio's
`src/' looks like (abridged):

     bin_PROGRAMS = cpio pax @MT@
     libexec_PROGRAMS = @RMT@
     EXTRA_PROGRAMS = mt rmt

     LDADD = ../lib/libcpio.a @INTLLIBS@
     rmt_LDADD =

     cpio_SOURCES = ...
     pax_SOURCES = ...
     mt_SOURCES = ...
     rmt_SOURCES = ...

   `PROG_LDADD' is inappropriate for passing program-specific linker
flags (except for `-l', `-L', `-dlopen' and `-dlpreopen').  So, use the
`PROG_LDFLAGS' variable for this purpose.

   It is also occasionally useful to have a program depend on some other
target which is not actually part of that program.  This can be done
using the `PROG_DEPENDENCIES' variable.  Each program depends on the
contents of such a variable, but no further interpretation is done.

   If `PROG_DEPENDENCIES' is not supplied, it is computed by Automake.
The automatically-assigned value is the contents of `PROG_LDADD', with
most configure substitutions, `-l', `-L', `-dlopen' and `-dlpreopen'
options removed.  The configure substitutions that are left in are only
`@LIBOBJS@' and `@ALLOCA@'; these are left because it is known that
they will not cause an invalid value for `PROG_DEPENDENCIES' to be

File:,  Node: Conditional Sources,  Next: Conditional Programs,  Prev: Linking,  Up: A Program

9.1.3 Conditional compilation of sources

You can't put a configure substitution (e.g., `@FOO@') into a
`_SOURCES' variable.  The reason for this is a bit hard to explain, but
suffice to say that it simply won't work.  Automake will give an error
if you try to do this.

   Fortunatly there are two other ways to achieve the same result.  One
is to use configure substitutions in `_LDADD' variables, the other is
to use an Automake conditional. Conditional compilation using `_LDADD' substitutions

Automake must know all the source files that could possibly go into a
program, even if not all the files are built in every circumstance.  Any
files which are only conditionally built should be listed in the
appropriate `EXTRA_' variable.  For instance, if `hello-linux.c' or
`hello-generic.c' were conditionally included in `hello', the
`' would contain:

     bin_PROGRAMS = hello
     hello_SOURCES = hello-common.c
     EXTRA_hello_SOURCES = hello-linux.c hello-generic.c
     hello_LDADD = @HELLO_SYSTEM@

You can then setup the `@HELLO_SYSTEM@' substitution from

     case $host in
       *linux*) HELLO_SYSTEM='hello-linux.$(OBJEXT)' ;;
       *)       HELLO_SYSTEM='hello-generic.$(OBJEXT)' ;;

   In this case, `HELLO_SYSTEM' should be replaced by `hello-linux.o'
or `hello-bsd.o', and added to `hello_DEPENDENCIES' and `hello_LDADD'
in order to be built and linked in. Conditional compilation using Automake conditionals

An often simpler way to compile source files conditionally is to use
Automake conditionals.  For instance, you could use this `'
construct to build the same `hello' example:

     bin_PROGRAMS = hello
     if LINUX
     hello_SOURCES = hello-linux.c hello-common.c
     hello_SOURCES = hello-generic.c hello-common.c

   In this case, your `' should setup the `LINUX'
conditional using `AM_CONDITIONAL' (*note Conditionals::).

   When using conditionals like this you don't need to use the `EXTRA_'
variable, because Automake will examine the contents of each variable
to construct the complete list of source files.

   If your program uses a lot of files, you will probably prefer to use
an intermediate variable to hold conditional sources.

     bin_PROGRAMS = hello
     if LINUX
     hello_cond = hello-linux.c
     hello_cond = hello-generic.c
     hello_SOURCES = hello-common.c $(hello_cond)

File:,  Node: Conditional Programs,  Prev: Conditional Sources,  Up: A Program

9.1.4 Conditional compilation of programs

Sometimes it is useful to determine the programs that are to be built at
configure time.  For instance, GNU `cpio' only builds `mt' and `rmt'
under special circumstances.

   In this case, you must notify Automake of all the programs that can
possibly be built, but at the same time cause the generated
`' to use the programs specified by `configure'.  This is
done by having `configure' substitute values into each `_PROGRAMS'
definition, while listing all optionally built programs in

   Of course you can use Automake conditionals to determine the
programs to be built.

File:,  Node: A Library,  Next: A Shared Library,  Prev: A Program,  Up: Programs

9.2 Building a library

Building a library is much like building a program.  In this case, the
name of the primary is `LIBRARIES'.  Libraries can be installed in
`libdir' or `pkglibdir'.

   *Note A Shared Library::, for information on how to build shared
libraries using Libtool and the `LTLIBRARIES' primary.

   Each `_LIBRARIES' variable is a list of the libraries to be built.
For instance to create a library named `libcpio.a', but not install it,
you would write:

     noinst_LIBRARIES = libcpio.a

   The sources that go into a library are determined exactly as they are
for programs, via the `_SOURCES' variables.  Note that the library name
is canonicalized (*note Canonicalization::), so the `_SOURCES' variable
corresponding to `liblob.a' is `liblob_a_SOURCES', not

   Extra objects can be added to a library using the `LIBRARY_LIBADD'
variable.  This should be used for objects determined by `configure'.
Again from `cpio':

     libcpio_a_LIBADD = @LIBOBJS@ @ALLOCA@

   In addition, sources for extra objects that will not exist until
configure-time must be added to the `BUILT_SOURCES' variable (*note

File:,  Node: A Shared Library,  Next: Program and Library Variables,  Prev: A Library,  Up: Programs

9.3 Building a Shared Library

Building shared libraries is a relatively complex matter.  For this
reason, GNU Libtool (*note Introduction: (libtool)Top.) was created to
help build shared libraries in a platform-independent way.

   Automake uses Libtool to build libraries declared with the
`LTLIBRARIES' primary.  Each `_LTLIBRARIES' variable is a list of
shared libraries to build.  For instance, to create a library named
`libgettext.a' and its corresponding shared libraries, and install them
in `libdir', write:

     lib_LTLIBRARIES =

   Note that shared libraries _must_ be installed in order to work
properly, so `check_LTLIBRARIES' is not allowed.  However,
`noinst_LTLIBRARIES' is allowed.  This feature should be used for
libtool "convenience libraries".

   For each library, the `LIBRARY_LIBADD' variable contains the names
of extra libtool objects (`.lo' files) to add to the shared library.
The `LIBRARY_LDFLAGS' variable contains any additional libtool flags,
such as `-version-info' or `-static'.

   Where an ordinary library might include `@LIBOBJS@', a libtool
library must use `@LTLIBOBJS@'.  This is required because the object
files that libtool operates on do not necessarily end in `.o'.  The
libtool manual contains more details on this topic.

   For libraries installed in some directory, Automake will
automatically supply the appropriate `-rpath' option.  However, for
libraries determined at configure time (and thus mentioned in
`EXTRA_LTLIBRARIES'), Automake does not know the eventual installation
directory; for such libraries you must add the `-rpath' option to the
appropriate `_LDFLAGS' variable by hand.

   Ordinarily, Automake requires that a shared library's name start with
`lib'.  However, if you are building a dynamically loadable module then
you might wish to use a "nonstandard" name.  In this case, put
`-module' into the `_LDFLAGS' variable.

   *Note Using Automake with Libtool: (libtool)Using Automake, for more

File:,  Node: Program and Library Variables,  Next: LIBOBJS,  Prev: A Shared Library,  Up: Programs

9.4 Program and Library Variables

Associated with each program are a collection of variables which can be
used to modify how that program is built.  There is a similar list of
such variables for each library.  The canonical name of the program (or
library) is used as a base for naming these variables.

   In the list below, we use the name "maude" to refer to the program or
library.  In your `' you would replace this with the
canonical name of your program.  This list also refers to "maude" as a
program, but in general the same rules apply for both static and dynamic
libraries; the documentation below notes situations where programs and
libraries differ.

     This variable, if it exists, lists all the source files which are
     compiled to build the program.  These files are added to the
     distribution by default.  When building the program, Automake will
     cause each source file to be compiled to a single `.o' file (or
     `.lo' when using libtool).  Normally these object files are named
     after the source file, but other factors can change this.  If a
     file in the `_SOURCES' variable has an unrecognized extension,
     Automake will do one of two things with it.  If a suffix rule
     exists for turning files with the unrecognized extension into `.o'
     files, then automake will treat this file as it will any other
     source file (*note Support for Other Languages::).  Otherwise, the
     file will be ignored as though it were a header file.

     The prefixes `dist_' and `nodist_' can be used to control whether
     files listed in a `_SOURCES' variable are distributed.  `dist_' is
     redundant, as sources are distributed by default, but it can be
     specified for clarity if desired.

     It is possible to have both `dist_' and `nodist_' variants of a
     given `_SOURCES' variable at once; this lets you easily distribute
     some files and not others, for instance:

          nodist_maude_SOURCES = nodist.c
          dist_maude_SOURCES = dist-me.c

     By default the output file (on Unix systems, the `.o' file) will be
     put into the current build directory.  However, if the option
     `subdir-objects' is in effect in the current directory then the
     `.o' file will be put into the subdirectory named after the source
     file.  For instance, with `subdir-objects' enabled,
     `sub/dir/file.c' will be compiled to `sub/dir/file.o'.  Some
     people prefer this mode of operation.  You can specify
     `subdir-objects' in `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' (*note Options::).

     Automake needs to know the list of files you intend to compile
     _statically_.  For one thing, this is the only way Automake has of
     knowing what sort of language support a given `'
     requires.  (1)  This means that, for example, you can't put a
     configure substitution like `@my_sources@' into a `_SOURCES'
     variable.  If you intend to conditionally compile source files and
     use `configure' to substitute the appropriate object names into,
     e.g., `_LDADD' (see below), then you should list the corresponding
     source files in the `EXTRA_' variable.

     This variable also supports `dist_' and `nodist_' prefixes, e.g.,

     A static library is created by default by invoking `$(AR) cru'
     followed by the name of the library and then the objects being put
     into the library.  You can override this by setting the `_AR'
     variable.  This is usually used with C++; some C++ compilers
     require a special invocation in order to instantiate all the
     templates which should go into a library.  For instance, the SGI
     C++ compiler likes this macro set like so:
          libmaude_a_AR = $(CXX) -ar -o

     Extra objects can be added to a static library using the `_LIBADD'
     variable.  This should be used for objects determined by
     `configure'.  Note that `_LIBADD' is not used for shared
     libraries; there you must use `_LDADD'.

     Extra objects can be added to a shared library or a program by
     listing them in the `_LDADD' variable.  This should be used for
     objects determined by `configure'.

     `_LDADD' and `_LIBADD' are inappropriate for passing
     program-specific linker flags (except for `-l', `-L', `-dlopen'
     and `-dlpreopen').  Use the `_LDFLAGS' variable for this purpose.

     For instance, if your `' uses `AC_PATH_XTRA', you
     could link your program against the X libraries like so:

          maude_LDADD = $(X_PRE_LIBS) $(X_LIBS) $(X_EXTRA_LIBS)

     This variable is used to pass extra flags to the link step of a
     program or a shared library.

     You can override the linker on a per-program basis.  By default the
     linker is chosen according to the languages used by the program.
     For instance, a program that includes C++ source code would use
     the C++ compiler to link.  The `_LINK' variable must hold the name
     of a command which can be passed all the `.o' file names as
     arguments.  Note that the name of the underlying program is _not_
     passed to `_LINK'; typically one uses `$@':

          maude_LINK = $(CCLD) -magic -o $@

     Automake allows you to set compilation flags on a per-program (or
     per-library) basis.  A single source file can be included in
     several programs, and it will potentially be compiled with
     different flags for each program.  This works for any language
     directly supported by Automake.  The flags are `_CFLAGS',
     `_FFLAGS', `_RFLAGS', and `_GCJFLAGS'.

     When using a per-program compilation flag, Automake will choose a
     different name for the intermediate object files.  Ordinarily a
     file like `sample.c' will be compiled to produce `sample.o'.
     However, if the program's `_CFLAGS' variable is set, then the
     object file will be named, for instance, `maude-sample.o'.

     In compilations with per-program flags, the ordinary `AM_' form of
     the flags variable is _not_ automatically included in the
     compilation (however, the user form of the variable _is_ included).
     So for instance, if you want the hypothetical `maude' compilations
     to also use the value of `AM_CFLAGS', you would need to write:

          maude_CFLAGS = ... your flags ... $(AM_CFLAGS)

     It is also occasionally useful to have a program depend on some
     other target which is not actually part of that program.  This can
     be done using the `_DEPENDENCIES' variable.  Each program depends
     on the contents of such a variable, but no further interpretation
     is done.

     If `_DEPENDENCIES' is not supplied, it is computed by Automake.
     The automatically-assigned value is the contents of `_LDADD' or
     `_LIBADD', with most configure substitutions, `-l', `-L',
     `-dlopen' and `-dlpreopen' options removed.  The configure
     substitutions that are left in are only `@LIBOBJS@' and
     `@ALLOCA@'; these are left because it is known that they will not
     cause an invalid value for `_DEPENDENCIES' to be generated.

     On some platforms the allowable file names are very short.  In
     order to support these systems and per-program compilation flags
     at the same time, Automake allows you to set a "short name" which
     will influence how intermediate object files are named.  For
     instance, if you set `maude_SHORTNAME' to `m', then in the above
     per-program compilation flag example the object file would be named
     `m-sample.o' rather than `maude-sample.o'.  This facility is
     rarely needed in practice, and we recommend avoiding it until you
     find it is required.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) There are other, more obscure reasons reasons for this
limitation as well.

File:,  Node: LIBOBJS,  Next: Program variables,  Prev: Program and Library Variables,  Up: Programs

9.5 Special handling for LIBOBJS and ALLOCA

Automake explicitly recognizes the use of `@LIBOBJS@' and `@ALLOCA@',
and uses this information, plus the list of `LIBOBJS' files derived
from `' to automatically include the appropriate source
files in the distribution (*note Dist::).  These source files are also
automatically handled in the dependency-tracking scheme; see *Note

   `@LIBOBJS@' and `@ALLOCA@' are specially recognized in any `_LDADD'
or `_LIBADD' variable.

File:,  Node: Program variables,  Next: Yacc and Lex,  Prev: LIBOBJS,  Up: Programs

9.6 Variables used when building a program

Occasionally it is useful to know which `Makefile' variables Automake
uses for compilations; for instance you might need to do your own
compilation in some special cases.

   Some variables are inherited from Autoconf; these are `CC',

   There are some additional variables which Automake itself defines:

     The contents of this macro are passed to every compilation which
     invokes the C preprocessor; it is a list of arguments to the
     preprocessor.  For instance, `-I' and `-D' options should be
     listed here.

     Automake already provides some `-I' options automatically.  In
     particular it generates `-I$(srcdir)', `-I.', and a `-I' pointing
     to the directory holding `config.h' (if you've used
     `AC_CONFIG_HEADER' or `AM_CONFIG_HEADER').  You can disable the
     default `-I' options using the `nostdinc' option.

     This does the same job as `AM_CPPFLAGS'.  It is an older name for
     the same functionality.  This macro is deprecated; we suggest using
     `AM_CPPFLAGS' instead.

     This is the variable which the `' author can use to pass
     in additional C compiler flags.  It is more fully documented
     elsewhere.  In some situations, this is not used, in preference to
     the per-executable (or per-library) `_CFLAGS'.

     This is the command used to actually compile a C source file.  The
     filename is appended to form the complete command line.

     This is the variable which the `' author can use to pass
     in additional linker flags.  In some situations, this is not used,
     in preference to the per-executable (or per-library) `_LDFLAGS'.

     This is the command used to actually link a C program.  It already
     includes `-o $@' and the usual variable references (for instance,
     `CFLAGS'); it takes as "arguments" the names of the object files
     and libraries to link in.

File:,  Node: Yacc and Lex,  Next: C++ Support,  Prev: Program variables,  Up: Programs

9.7 Yacc and Lex support

Automake has somewhat idiosyncratic support for Yacc and Lex.

   Automake assumes that the `.c' file generated by `yacc' (or `lex')
should be named using the basename of the input file.  That is, for a
yacc source file `foo.y', Automake will cause the intermediate file to
be named `foo.c' (as opposed to `', which is more traditional).

   The extension of a yacc source file is used to determine the
extension of the resulting `C' or `C++' file.  Files with the extension
`.y' will be turned into `.c' files; likewise, `.yy' will become `.cc';
`.y++', `c++'; and `.yxx', `.cxx'.

   Likewise, lex source files can be used to generate `C' or `C++'; the
extensions `.l', `.ll', `.l++', and `.lxx' are recognized.

   You should never explicitly mention the intermediate (`C' or `C++')
file in any `SOURCES' variable; only list the source file.

   The intermediate files generated by `yacc' (or `lex') will be
included in any distribution that is made.  That way the user doesn't
need to have `yacc' or `lex'.

   If a `yacc' source file is seen, then your `' must
define the variable `YACC'.  This is most easily done by invoking the
macro `AC_PROG_YACC' (*note Particular Program Checks:
(autoconf)Particular Programs.).

   When `yacc' is invoked, it is passed `YFLAGS' and `AM_YFLAGS'.  The
former is a user variable and the latter is intended for the
`' author.

   Similarly, if a `lex' source file is seen, then your `'
must define the variable `LEX'.  You can use `AC_PROG_LEX' to do this
(*note Particular Program Checks: (autoconf)Particular Programs.), but
using `AM_PROG_LEX' macro (*note Macros::) is recommended.

   When `lex' is invoked, it is passed `LFLAGS' and `AM_LFLAGS'.  The
former is a user variable and the latter is intended for the
`' author.

   Automake makes it possible to include multiple `yacc' (or `lex')
source files in a single program.  Automake uses a small program called
`ylwrap' to run `yacc' (or `lex') in a subdirectory.  This is necessary
because yacc's output filename is fixed, and a parallel make could
conceivably invoke more than one instance of `yacc' simultaneously.
The `ylwrap' program is distributed with Automake.  It should appear in
the directory specified by `AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR' (*note Finding
`configure' Input: (autoconf)Input.), or the current directory if that
macro is not used in `'.

   For `yacc', simply managing locking is insufficient.  The output of
`yacc' always uses the same symbol names internally, so it isn't
possible to link two `yacc' parsers into the same executable.

   We recommend using the following renaming hack used in `gdb':
     #define	yymaxdepth c_maxdepth
     #define	yyparse	c_parse
     #define	yylex	c_lex
     #define	yyerror	c_error
     #define	yylval	c_lval
     #define	yychar	c_char
     #define	yydebug	c_debug
     #define	yypact	c_pact
     #define	yyr1	c_r1
     #define	yyr2	c_r2
     #define	yydef	c_def
     #define	yychk	c_chk
     #define	yypgo	c_pgo
     #define	yyact	c_act
     #define	yyexca	c_exca
     #define yyerrflag c_errflag
     #define yynerrs	c_nerrs
     #define	yyps	c_ps
     #define	yypv	c_pv
     #define	yys	c_s
     #define	yy_yys	c_yys
     #define	yystate	c_state
     #define	yytmp	c_tmp
     #define	yyv	c_v
     #define	yy_yyv	c_yyv
     #define	yyval	c_val
     #define	yylloc	c_lloc
     #define yyreds	c_reds
     #define yytoks	c_toks
     #define yylhs	c_yylhs
     #define yylen	c_yylen
     #define yydefred c_yydefred
     #define yydgoto	c_yydgoto
     #define yysindex c_yysindex
     #define yyrindex c_yyrindex
     #define yygindex c_yygindex
     #define yytable	 c_yytable
     #define yycheck	 c_yycheck
     #define yyname   c_yyname
     #define yyrule   c_yyrule

   For each define, replace the `c_' prefix with whatever you like.
These defines work for `bison', `byacc', and traditional `yacc's.  If
you find a parser generator that uses a symbol not covered here, please
report the new name so it can be added to the list.

File:,  Node: C++ Support,  Next: Assembly Support,  Prev: Yacc and Lex,  Up: Programs

9.8 C++ Support

Automake includes full support for C++.

   Any package including C++ code must define the output variable `CXX'
in `'; the simplest way to do this is to use the
`AC_PROG_CXX' macro (*note Particular Program Checks:
(autoconf)Particular Programs.).

   A few additional variables are defined when a C++ source file is

     The name of the C++ compiler.

     Any flags to pass to the C++ compiler.

     The maintainer's variant of `CXXFLAGS'.

     The command used to actually compile a C++ source file.  The file
     name is appended to form the complete command line.

     The command used to actually link a C++ program.

File:,  Node: Assembly Support,  Next: Fortran 77 Support,  Prev: C++ Support,  Up: Programs

9.9 Assembly Support

Automake includes some support for assembly code.

   The variable `CCAS' holds the name of the compiler used to build
assembly code.  This compiler must work a bit like a C compiler; in
particular it must accept `-c' and `-o'.  The value of `CCASFLAGS' is
passed to the compilation.

   You are required to set `CCAS' and `CCASFLAGS' via `'.
The autoconf macro `AM_PROG_AS' will do this for you.  Unless they are
already set, it simply sets `CCAS' to the C compiler and `CCASFLAGS' to
the C compiler flags.

   Only the suffixes `.s' and `.S' are recognized by `automake' as
being files containing assembly code.

File:,  Node: Fortran 77 Support,  Next: Java Support,  Prev: Assembly Support,  Up: Programs

9.10 Fortran 77 Support

Automake includes full support for Fortran 77.

   Any package including Fortran 77 code must define the output variable
`F77' in `'; the simplest way to do this is to use the
`AC_PROG_F77' macro (*note Particular Program Checks:
(autoconf)Particular Programs.).  *Note Fortran 77 and Autoconf::.

   A few additional variables are defined when a Fortran 77 source file
is seen:

     The name of the Fortran 77 compiler.

     Any flags to pass to the Fortran 77 compiler.

     The maintainer's variant of `FFLAGS'.

     Any flags to pass to the Ratfor compiler.

     The maintainer's variant of `RFLAGS'.

     The command used to actually compile a Fortran 77 source file.
     The file name is appended to form the complete command line.

     The command used to actually link a pure Fortran 77 program or
     shared library.

   Automake can handle preprocessing Fortran 77 and Ratfor source files
in addition to compiling them(1).  Automake also contains some support
for creating programs and shared libraries that are a mixture of
Fortran 77 and other languages (*note Mixing Fortran 77 With C and

   These issues are covered in the following sections.

* Menu:

* Preprocessing Fortran 77::
* Compiling Fortran 77 Files::
* Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++::
* Fortran 77 and Autoconf::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Much, if not most, of the information in the following sections
pertaining to preprocessing Fortran 77 programs was taken almost
verbatim from *note Catalogue of Rules: (make)Catalogue of Rules.

File:,  Node: Preprocessing Fortran 77,  Next: Compiling Fortran 77 Files,  Prev: Fortran 77 Support,  Up: Fortran 77 Support

9.10.1 Preprocessing Fortran 77

`N.f' is made automatically from `N.F' or `N.r'.  This rule runs just
the preprocessor to convert a preprocessable Fortran 77 or Ratfor
source file into a strict Fortran 77 source file.  The precise command
used is as follows:

     $(AM_FFLAGS) $(FFLAGS)'

     `$(F77) -F $(AM_FFLAGS) $(FFLAGS) $(AM_RFLAGS) $(RFLAGS)'

File:,  Node: Compiling Fortran 77 Files,  Next: Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++,  Prev: Preprocessing Fortran 77,  Up: Fortran 77 Support

9.10.2 Compiling Fortran 77 Files

`N.o' is made automatically from `N.f', `N.F' or `N.r' by running the
Fortran 77 compiler.  The precise command used is as follows:

     `$(F77) -c $(AM_FFLAGS) $(FFLAGS)'

     `$(F77) -c $(DEFS) $(INCLUDES) $(AM_CPPFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS)
     $(AM_FFLAGS) $(FFLAGS)'

     `$(F77) -c $(AM_FFLAGS) $(FFLAGS) $(AM_RFLAGS) $(RFLAGS)'

File:,  Node: Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++,  Next: Fortran 77 and Autoconf,  Prev: Compiling Fortran 77 Files,  Up: Fortran 77 Support

9.10.3 Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++

Automake currently provides _limited_ support for creating programs and
shared libraries that are a mixture of Fortran 77 and C and/or C++.
However, there are many other issues related to mixing Fortran 77 with
other languages that are _not_ (currently) handled by Automake, but
that are handled by other packages(1).

   Automake can help in two ways:

  1. Automatic selection of the linker depending on which combinations
     of source code.

  2. Automatic selection of the appropriate linker flags (e.g. `-L' and
     `-l') to pass to the automatically selected linker in order to link
     in the appropriate Fortran 77 intrinsic and run-time libraries.

     These extra Fortran 77 linker flags are supplied in the output
     variable `FLIBS' by the `AC_F77_LIBRARY_LDFLAGS' Autoconf macro
     supplied with newer versions of Autoconf (Autoconf version 2.13 and
     later).  *Note Fortran 77 Compiler Characteristics:
     (autoconf)Fortran 77 Compiler Characteristics.

   If Automake detects that a program or shared library (as mentioned in
some `_PROGRAMS' or `_LTLIBRARIES' primary) contains source code that
is a mixture of Fortran 77 and C and/or C++, then it requires that the
macro `AC_F77_LIBRARY_LDFLAGS' be called in `', and that
either `$(FLIBS)' or `@FLIBS@' appear in the appropriate `_LDADD' (for
programs) or `_LIBADD' (for shared libraries) variables.  It is the
responsibility of the person writing the `' to make sure
that `$(FLIBS)' or `@FLIBS@' appears in the appropriate `_LDADD' or
`_LIBADD' variable.

   For example, consider the following `':

     bin_PROGRAMS = foo
     foo_SOURCES  = foo.f
     foo_LDADD    = @FLIBS@

     pkglib_LTLIBRARIES =
     libfoo_la_SOURCES  = bar.f baz.c
     libfoo_la_LIBADD   = $(FLIBS)

   In this case, Automake will insist that `AC_F77_LIBRARY_LDFLAGS' is
mentioned in `'.  Also, if `@FLIBS@' hadn't been mentioned
in `foo_LDADD' and `libfoo_la_LIBADD', then Automake would have issued
a warning.

* Menu:

* How the Linker is Chosen::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) For example, the cfortran package
( addresses all of these
inter-language issues, and runs under nearly all Fortran 77, C and C++
compilers on nearly all platforms.  However, `cfortran' is not yet Free
Software, but it will be in the next major release.

File:,  Node: How the Linker is Chosen,  Prev: Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++,  Up: Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++ How the Linker is Chosen

The following diagram demonstrates under what conditions a particular
linker is chosen by Automake.

   For example, if Fortran 77, C and C++ source code were to be compiled
into a program, then the C++ linker will be used.  In this case, if the
C or Fortran 77 linkers required any special libraries that weren't
included by the C++ linker, then they must be manually added to an
`_LDADD' or `_LIBADD' variable by the user writing the `'.

                          \              Linker
               source      \
                code        \     C        C++     Fortran
          -----------------  +---------+---------+---------+
                             |         |         |         |
          C                  |    x    |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
              C++            |         |    x    |         |
                             |         |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
                    Fortran  |         |         |    x    |
                             |         |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
          C + C++            |         |    x    |         |
                             |         |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
          C +       Fortran  |         |         |    x    |
                             |         |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
              C++ + Fortran  |         |    x    |         |
                             |         |         |         |
                             |         |         |         |
          C + C++ + Fortran  |         |    x    |         |
                             |         |         |         |

File:,  Node: Fortran 77 and Autoconf,  Prev: Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++,  Up: Fortran 77 Support

9.10.4 Fortran 77 and Autoconf

The current Automake support for Fortran 77 requires a recent enough
version of Autoconf that also includes support for Fortran 77.  Full
Fortran 77 support was added to Autoconf 2.13, so you will want to use
that version of Autoconf or later.

File:,  Node: Java Support,  Next: Support for Other Languages,  Prev: Fortran 77 Support,  Up: Programs

9.11 Java Support

Automake includes support for compiled Java, using `gcj', the Java
front end to the GNU Compiler Collection.

   Any package including Java code to be compiled must define the output
variable `GCJ' in `'; the variable `GCJFLAGS' must also be
defined somehow (either in `' or `').  The
simplest way to do this is to use the `AM_PROG_GCJ' macro.

   By default, programs including Java source files are linked with

   As always, the contents of `AM_GCJFLAGS' are passed to every
compilation invoking `gcj' (in its role as an ahead-of-time compiler -
when invoking it to create `.class' files, `AM_JAVACFLAGS' is used
instead).  If it is necessary to pass options to `gcj' from
`', this macro, and not the user macro `GCJFLAGS', should be

   `gcj' can be used to compile `.java', `.class', `.zip', or `.jar'

   When linking, `gcj' requires that the main class be specified using
the `--main=' option.  The easiest way to do this is to use the
`_LDFLAGS' variable for the program.

File:,  Node: Support for Other Languages,  Next: ANSI,  Prev: Java Support,  Up: Programs

9.12 Support for Other Languages

Automake currently only includes full support for C, C++ (*note C++
Support::), Fortran 77 (*note Fortran 77 Support::), and Java (*note
Java Support::).  There is only rudimentary support for other
languages, support for which will be improved based on user demand.

   Some limited support for adding your own languages is available via
the suffix rule handling; see *note Suffixes::.

File:,  Node: ANSI,  Next: Dependencies,  Prev: Support for Other Languages,  Up: Programs

9.13 Automatic de-ANSI-fication

Although the GNU standards allow the use of ANSI C, this can have the
effect of limiting portability of a package to some older compilers
(notably the SunOS C compiler).

   Automake allows you to work around this problem on such machines by
"de-ANSI-fying" each source file before the actual compilation takes

   If the `' variable `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' (*note Options::)
contains the option `ansi2knr' then code to handle de-ANSI-fication is
inserted into the generated `'.

   This causes each C source file in the directory to be treated as
ANSI C.  If an ANSI C compiler is available, it is used.  If no ANSI C
compiler is available, the `ansi2knr' program is used to convert the
source files into K&R C, which is then compiled.

   The `ansi2knr' program is simple-minded.  It assumes the source code
will be formatted in a particular way; see the `ansi2knr' man page for

   Support for de-ANSI-fication requires the source files `ansi2knr.c'
and `ansi2knr.1' to be in the same package as the ANSI C source; these
files are distributed with Automake.  Also, the package `'
must call the macro `AM_C_PROTOTYPES' (*note Macros::).

   Automake also handles finding the `ansi2knr' support files in some
other directory in the current package.  This is done by prepending the
relative path to the appropriate directory to the `ansi2knr' option.
For instance, suppose the package has ANSI C code in the `src' and
`lib' subdirs.  The files `ansi2knr.c' and `ansi2knr.1' appear in
`lib'.  Then this could appear in `src/':

     AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS = ../lib/ansi2knr

   If no directory prefix is given, the files are assumed to be in the
current directory.

   Files mentioned in `LIBOBJS' which need de-ANSI-fication will not be
automatically handled.  That's because `configure' will generate an
object name like `regex.o', while `make' will be looking for `regex_.o'
(when de-ANSI-fying).  Eventually this problem will be fixed via
`autoconf' magic, but for now you must put this code into your
`', just before the `AC_OUTPUT' call:

     # This is necessary so that .o files in LIBOBJS are also built via
     # the ANSI2KNR-filtering rules.
     LIBOBJS=`echo $LIBOBJS|sed 's/\.o /\$U.o /g;s/\.o$/\$U.o/'`

   Note that automatic de-ANSI-fication will not work when the package
is being built for a different host architecture.  That is because
automake currently has no way to build `ansi2knr' for the build machine.

File:,  Node: Dependencies,  Next: EXEEXT,  Prev: ANSI,  Up: Programs

9.14 Automatic dependency tracking

As a developer it is often painful to continually update the
`' whenever the include-file dependencies change in a
project.  Automake supplies a way to automatically track dependency

   Automake always uses complete dependencies for a compilation,
including system headers.  Automake's model is that dependency
computation should be a side effect of the build.  To this end,
dependencies are computed by running all compilations through a special
wrapper program called `depcomp'.  `depcomp' understands how to coax
many different C and C++ compilers into generating dependency
information in the format it requires.  `automake -a' will install
`depcomp' into your source tree for you.  If `depcomp' can't figure out
how to properly invoke your compiler, dependency tracking will simply
be disabled for your build.

   Experience with earlier versions of Automake (1) taught us that it
is not reliable to generate dependencies only on the maintainer's
system, as configurations vary too much.  So instead Automake
implements dependency tracking at build time.

   Automatic dependency tracking can be suppressed by putting
`no-dependencies' in the variable `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS', or passing
`no-dependencies' as an argument to `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' (this should be
the prefered way).  Or, you can invoke `automake' with the `-i' option.
Dependency tracking is enabled by default.

   The person building your package also can choose to disable
dependency tracking by configuring with `--disable-dependency-tracking'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) See `' for
more information on the history and experiences with automatic
dependency tracking in Automake

File:,  Node: EXEEXT,  Prev: Dependencies,  Up: Programs

9.15 Support for executable extensions

On some platforms, such as Windows, executables are expected to have an
extension such as `.exe'.  On these platforms, some compilers (GCC
among them) will automatically generate `foo.exe' when asked to
generate `foo'.

   Automake provides mostly-transparent support for this.  Unfortunately
_mostly_ doesn't yet mean _fully_.  Until the English dictionary is
revised, you will have to assist Automake if your package must support
those platforms.

   One thing you must be aware of is that, internally, Automake rewrites
something like this:

     bin_PROGRAMS = liver

   to this:

     bin_PROGRAMS = liver$(EXEEXT)

   The targets Automake generates are likewise given the `$(EXEEXT)'
extension.  `EXEEXT'

   However, Automake cannot apply this rewriting to `configure'
substitutions.  This means that if you are conditionally building a
program using such a substitution, then your `' must take
care to add `$(EXEEXT)' when constructing the output variable.

   With Autoconf 2.13 and earlier, you must explicitly use `AC_EXEEXT'
to get this support.  With Autoconf 2.50, `AC_EXEEXT' is run
automatically if you configure a compiler (say, through `AC_PROG_CC').

   Sometimes maintainers like to write an explicit link rule for their
program.  Without executable extension support, this is easy--you
simply write a target with the same name as the program.  However, when
executable extension support is enabled, you must instead add the
`$(EXEEXT)' suffix.

   Unfortunately, due to the change in Autoconf 2.50, this means you
must always add this extension.  However, this is a problem for
maintainers who know their package will never run on a platform that
has executable extensions.  For those maintainers, the `no-exeext'
option (*note Options::) will disable this feature.  This works in a
fairly ugly way; if `no-exeext' is seen, then the presence of a target
named `foo' in `' will override an automake-generated target
of the form `foo$(EXEEXT)'.  Without the `no-exeext' option, this use
will give an error.

File:,  Node: Other objects,  Next: Other GNU Tools,  Prev: Programs,  Up: Top

10 Other Derived Objects

Automake can handle derived objects which are not C programs.  Sometimes
the support for actually building such objects must be explicitly
supplied, but Automake will still automatically handle installation and

* Menu:

* Scripts::                     Executable scripts
* Headers::                     Header files
* Data::                        Architecture-independent data files
* Sources::                     Derived sources

File:,  Node: Scripts,  Next: Headers,  Prev: Other objects,  Up: Other objects

10.1 Executable Scripts

It is possible to define and install programs which are scripts.  Such
programs are listed using the `SCRIPTS' primary name.  Automake doesn't
define any dependencies for scripts; the `' should include
the appropriate rules.

   Automake does not assume that scripts are derived objects; such
objects must be deleted by hand (*note Clean::).

   The `automake' program itself is a Perl script that is generated at
configure time from `'.  Here is how this is handled:

     bin_SCRIPTS = automake

   Since `automake' appears in the `AC_OUTPUT' macro, a target for it
is automatically generated, and it is also automatically cleaned
(despite the fact it's a script).

   Script objects can be installed in `bindir', `sbindir',
`libexecdir', or `pkgdatadir'.

   Scripts that need not being installed can be listed in
`noinst_SCRIPTS', and among them, those which are needed only by `make
check' should go in `check_SCRIPTS'.

File:,  Node: Headers,  Next: Data,  Prev: Scripts,  Up: Other objects

10.2 Header files

Header files are specified by the `HEADERS' family of variables.
Generally header files are not installed, so the `noinst_HEADERS'
variable will be the most used.  (1)

   All header files must be listed somewhere; missing ones will not
appear in the distribution.  Often it is clearest to list uninstalled
headers with the rest of the sources for a program.  *Note A Program::.
Headers listed in a `_SOURCES' variable need not be listed in any
`_HEADERS' variable.

   Headers can be installed in `includedir', `oldincludedir', or

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) However, for the case of a non-installed header file that is
actually used by a particular program, we recommend listing it in the
program's `_SOURCES' variable instead of in `noinst_HEADERS'.  We
believe this is more clear.

File:,  Node: Data,  Next: Sources,  Prev: Headers,  Up: Other objects

10.3 Architecture-independent data files

Automake supports the installation of miscellaneous data files using the
`DATA' family of variables.

   Such data can be installed in the directories `datadir',
`sysconfdir', `sharedstatedir', `localstatedir', or `pkgdatadir'.

   By default, data files are _not_ included in a distribution.  Of
course, you can use the `dist_' prefix to change this on a per-variable

   Here is how Automake declares its auxiliary data files:

     dist_pkgdata_DATA = ...

File:,  Node: Sources,  Prev: Data,  Up: Other objects

10.4 Built sources

Occasionally a file which would otherwise be called `source' (e.g. a C
`.h' file) is actually derived from some other file.  Such files should
be listed in the `BUILT_SOURCES' variable.

   `BUILT_SOURCES' is actually a bit of a misnomer, as any file which
must be created early in the build process can be listed in this

   A source file listed in `BUILT_SOURCES' is created before the other
`all' targets are made.  However, such a source file is not compiled
unless explicitly requested by mentioning it in some other `_SOURCES'

   So, for instance, if you had header files which were created by a
script run at build time, then you would list these headers in
`BUILT_SOURCES', to ensure that they would be built before any other
compilations (perhaps ones using these headers) were started.

File:,  Node: Other GNU Tools,  Next: Documentation,  Prev: Other objects,  Up: Top

11 Other GNU Tools

Since Automake is primarily intended to generate `'s for use
in GNU programs, it tries hard to interoperate with other GNU tools.

* Menu:

* Emacs Lisp::                  Emacs Lisp
* gettext::                     Gettext
* Libtool::                     Libtool
* Java::                        Java
* Python::                      Python

File:,  Node: Emacs Lisp,  Next: gettext,  Prev: Other GNU Tools,  Up: Other GNU Tools

11.1 Emacs Lisp

Automake provides some support for Emacs Lisp.  The `LISP' primary is
used to hold a list of `.el' files.  Possible prefixes for this primary
are `lisp_' and `noinst_'.  Note that if `lisp_LISP' is defined, then
`' must run `AM_PATH_LISPDIR' (*note Macros::).

   By default Automake will byte-compile all Emacs Lisp source files
using the Emacs found by `AM_PATH_LISPDIR'.  If you wish to avoid
byte-compiling, simply define the variable `ELCFILES' to be empty.
Byte-compiled Emacs Lisp files are not portable among all versions of
Emacs, so it makes sense to turn this off if you expect sites to have
more than one version of Emacs installed.  Furthermore, many packages
don't actually benefit from byte-compilation.  Still, we recommend that
you leave it enabled by default.  It is probably better for sites with
strange setups to cope for themselves than to make the installation less
nice for everybody else.

File:,  Node: gettext,  Next: Libtool,  Prev: Emacs Lisp,  Up: Other GNU Tools

11.2 Gettext

If `AM_GNU_GETTEXT' is seen in `', then Automake turns on
support for GNU gettext, a message catalog system for
internationalization (*note GNU Gettext: (gettext)GNU Gettext.).

   The `gettext' support in Automake requires the addition of two
subdirectories to the package, `intl' and `po'.  Automake insures that
these directories exist and are mentioned in `SUBDIRS'.

File:,  Node: Libtool,  Next: Java,  Prev: gettext,  Up: Other GNU Tools

11.3 Libtool

Automake provides support for GNU Libtool (*note Introduction:
(libtool)Top.) with the `LTLIBRARIES' primary.  *Note A Shared

File:,  Node: Java,  Next: Python,  Prev: Libtool,  Up: Other GNU Tools

11.4 Java

Automake provides some minimal support for Java compilation with the
`JAVA' primary.

   Any `.java' files listed in a `_JAVA' variable will be compiled with
`JAVAC' at build time.  By default, `.class' files are not included in
the distribution.

   Currently Automake enforces the restriction that only one `_JAVA'
primary can be used in a given `'.  The reason for this
restriction is that, in general, it isn't possible to know which
`.class' files were generated from which `.java' files - so it would be
impossible to know which files to install where.  For instance, a
`.java' file can define multiple classes; the resulting `.class' file
names cannot be predicted without parsing the `.java' file.

   There are a few variables which are used when compiling Java sources:

     The name of the Java compiler.  This defaults to `javac'.

     The flags to pass to the compiler.  This is considered to be a user
     variable (*note User Variables::).

     More flags to pass to the Java compiler.  This, and not
     `JAVACFLAGS', should be used when it is necessary to put Java
     compiler flags into `'.

     The value of this variable is passed to the `-d' option to
     `javac'.  It defaults to `$(top_builddir)'.

     This variable is an `sh' expression which is used to set the
     `CLASSPATH' environment variable on the `javac' command line.  (In
     the future we will probably handle class path setting differently.)

File:,  Node: Python,  Prev: Java,  Up: Other GNU Tools

11.5 Python

Automake provides support for Python compilation with the `PYTHON'

   Any files listed in a `_PYTHON' variable will be byte-compiled with
`py-compile' at install time.  `py-compile' actually creates both
standard (`.pyc') and byte-compiled (`.pyo') versions of the source
files.  Note that because byte-compilation occurs at install time, any
files listed in `noinst_PYTHON' will not be compiled.  Python source
files are included in the distribution by default.

   Automake ships with an Autoconf macro called `AM_PATH_PYTHON' which
will determine some Python-related directory variables (see below).  If
have called `AM_PATH_PYTHON' from you `', then you may use
the following variables to list you Python source files in your
variables: `python_PYTHON', `pkgpython_PYTHON', `pkgpython_PYTHON',
`pyexecdir_PYTHON', `pkgpyexecdir_PYTHON', depending where you want
your files installed.

   `AM_PATH_PYTHON' takes a single optional argument.  This argument,
if present, is the minimum version of Python which can be used for this
package.  If the version of Python found on the system is older than the
required version, then `AM_PATH_PYTHON' will cause an error.

   `AM_PATH_PYTHON' creates several output variables based on the
Python installation found during configuration.

     The name of the Python executable.

     The Python version number, in the form MAJOR.MINOR (e.g. `1.5').
     This is currently the value of `sys.version[:3]'.

     The string `$prefix'.  This term may be used in future work which
     needs the contents of Python's `sys.prefix', but general consensus
     is to always use the value from configure.

     The string `$exec_prefix'.  This term may be used in future work
     which needs the contents of Python's `sys.exec_prefix', but general
     consensus is to always use the value from configure.

     The canonical name used by Python to describe the operating
     system, as given by `sys.platform'.  This value is sometimes
     needed when building Python extensions.

     The directory name for the `site-packages' subdirectory of the
     standard Python install tree.

     This is is the directory under `pythondir' which is named after the
     package.  That is, it is `$(pythondir)/$(PACKAGE)'.  It is provided
     as a convenience.

     This is the directory where Python extension modules (shared
     libraries) should be installed.

     This is a convenience variable which is defined as

File:,  Node: Documentation,  Next: Install,  Prev: Other GNU Tools,  Up: Top

12 Building documentation

Currently Automake provides support for Texinfo and man pages.

* Menu:

* Texinfo::                     Texinfo
* Man pages::                   Man pages

File:,  Node: Texinfo,  Next: Man pages,  Prev: Documentation,  Up: Documentation

12.1 Texinfo

If the current directory contains Texinfo source, you must declare it
with the `TEXINFOS' primary.  Generally Texinfo files are converted
into info, and thus the `info_TEXINFOS' macro is most commonly used
here.  Any Texinfo source file must end in the `.texi', `.txi', or
`.texinfo' extension.  We recommend `.texi' for new manuals.

   If the `.texi' file `@include's `version.texi', then that file will
be automatically generated.  The file `version.texi' defines four
Texinfo macros you can reference:

     Both of these macros hold the version number of your program.
     They are kept separate for clarity.

     This holds the date the primary `.texi' file was last modified.

     This holds the name of the month in which the primary `.texi' file
     was last modified.

   The `version.texi' support requires the `mdate-sh' program; this
program is supplied with Automake and automatically included when
`automake' is invoked with the `--add-missing' option.

   If you have multiple Texinfo files, and you want to use the
`version.texi' feature, then you have to have a separate version file
for each Texinfo file.  Automake will treat any include in a Texinfo
file that matches `vers*.texi' just as an automatically generated
version file.

   When an info file is rebuilt, the program named by the `MAKEINFO'
variable is used to invoke it.  If the `makeinfo' program is found on
the system then it will be used by default; otherwise `missing' will be
used instead.  The flags in the variables `MAKEINFOFLAGS' and
`AM_MAKEINFOFLAGS' will be passed to the `makeinfo' invocation; the
first of these is intended for use by the user (*note User Variables::)
and the second by the `' writer.

   Sometimes an info file actually depends on more than one `.texi'
file.  For instance, in GNU Hello, `hello.texi' includes the file
`gpl.texi'.  You can tell Automake about these dependencies using the
`TEXI_TEXINFOS' variable.  Here is how GNU Hello does it:

     info_TEXINFOS = hello.texi
     hello_TEXINFOS = gpl.texi

   By default, Automake requires the file `texinfo.tex' to appear in
the same directory as the Texinfo source.  However, if you used
`AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR' in `' (*note Finding `configure' Input:
(autoconf)Input.), then `texinfo.tex' is looked for there.  Automake
supplies `texinfo.tex' if `--add-missing' is given.

   If your package has Texinfo files in many directories, you can use
the variable `TEXINFO_TEX' to tell Automake where to find the canonical
`texinfo.tex' for your package.  The value of this variable should be
the relative path from the current `' to `texinfo.tex':

     TEXINFO_TEX = ../doc/texinfo.tex

   The option `no-texinfo.tex' can be used to eliminate the requirement
for `texinfo.tex'.  Use of the variable `TEXINFO_TEX' is preferable,
however, because that allows the `dvi' target to still work.

   Automake generates an `install-info' target; some people apparently
use this.  By default, info pages are installed by `make install'.
This can be prevented via the `no-installinfo' option.

File:,  Node: Man pages,  Prev: Texinfo,  Up: Documentation

12.2 Man pages

A package can also include man pages (but see the GNU standards on this
matter, *note Man Pages: (standards)Man Pages.)  Man pages are declared
using the `MANS' primary.  Generally the `man_MANS' macro is used.  Man
pages are automatically installed in the correct subdirectory of
`mandir', based on the file extension.

   File extensions such as `.1c' are handled by looking for the valid
part of the extension and using that to determine the correct
subdirectory of `mandir'.  Valid section names are the digits `0'
through `9', and the letters `l' and `n'.

   Sometimes developers prefer to name a man page something like
`' in the source, and then rename it to have the correct suffix,
e.g. `foo.1', when installing the file.  Automake also supports this
mode.  For a valid section named SECTION, there is a corresponding
directory named `manSECTIONdir', and a corresponding `_MANS' variable.
Files listed in such a variable are installed in the indicated section.
If the file already has a valid suffix, then it is installed as-is;
otherwise the file suffix is changed to match the section.

   For instance, consider this example:
     man1_MANS = thesame.1 alsothesame.1c

   In this case, `' will be renamed to `rename.1' when
installed, but the other files will keep their names.

   By default, man pages are installed by `make install'.  However,
since the GNU project does not require man pages, many maintainers do
not expend effort to keep the man pages up to date.  In these cases, the
`no-installman' option will prevent the man pages from being installed
by default.  The user can still explicitly install them via `make

   Here is how the man pages are handled in GNU `cpio' (which includes
both Texinfo documentation and man pages):

     man_MANS = cpio.1 mt.1
     EXTRA_DIST = $(man_MANS)

   Man pages are not currently considered to be source, because it is
not uncommon for man pages to be automatically generated.  Therefore
they are not automatically included in the distribution.  However, this
can be changed by use of the `dist_' prefix.

   The `nobase_' prefix is meaningless for man pages and is disallowed.

File:,  Node: Install,  Next: Clean,  Prev: Documentation,  Up: Top

13 What Gets Installed

13.1 Basics of installation

Naturally, Automake handles the details of actually installing your
program once it has been built.  All files named by the various
primaries are automatically installed in the appropriate places when the
user runs `make install'.

   A file named in a primary is installed by copying the built file into
the appropriate directory.  The base name of the file is used when

     bin_PROGRAMS = hello subdir/goodbye

   In this example, both `hello' and `goodbye' will be installed in

   Sometimes it is useful to avoid the basename step at install time.
For instance, you might have a number of header files in subdirectories
of the source tree which are laid out precisely how you want to install
them.  In this situation you can use the `nobase_' prefix to suppress
the base name step.  For example:

     nobase_include_HEADERS = stdio.h sys/types.h

   Will install `stdio.h' in `$(includedir)' and `types.h' in

13.2 The two parts of install

Automake generates separate `install-data' and `install-exec' targets,
in case the installer is installing on multiple machines which share
directory structure--these targets allow the machine-independent parts
to be installed only once.  `install-exec' installs platform-dependent
files, and `install-data' installs platform-independent files.  The
`install' target depends on both of these targets.  While Automake
tries to automatically segregate objects into the correct category, the
`' author is, in the end, responsible for making sure this
is done correctly.

   Variables using the standard directory prefixes `data', `info',
`man', `include', `oldinclude', `pkgdata', or `pkginclude' (e.g.
`data_DATA') are installed by `install-data'.

   Variables using the standard directory prefixes `bin', `sbin',
`libexec', `sysconf', `localstate', `lib', or `pkglib' (e.g.
`bin_PROGRAMS') are installed by `install-exec'.

   Any variable using a user-defined directory prefix with `exec' in
the name (e.g. `myexecbin_PROGRAMS' is installed by `install-exec'.
All other user-defined prefixes are installed by `install-data'.

13.3 Extending installation

It is possible to extend this mechanism by defining an
`install-exec-local' or `install-data-local' target.  If these targets
exist, they will be run at `make install' time.  These rules can do
almost anything; care is required.

   Automake also supports two install hooks, `install-exec-hook' and
`install-data-hook'.  These hooks are run after all other install rules
of the appropriate type, exec or data, have completed.  So, for
instance, it is possible to perform post-installation modifications
using an install hook.

13.4 Staged installs

Automake generates support for the `DESTDIR' variable in all install
rules.  `DESTDIR' is used during the `make install' step to relocate
install objects into a staging area.  Each object and path is prefixed
with the value of `DESTDIR' before being copied into the install area.
Here is an example of typical DESTDIR usage:

     make DESTDIR=/tmp/staging install

   This places install objects in a directory tree built under
`/tmp/staging'.  If `/gnu/bin/foo' and `/gnu/share/aclocal/foo.m4' are
to be installed, the above command would install
`/tmp/staging/gnu/bin/foo' and `/tmp/staging/gnu/share/aclocal/foo.m4'.

   This feature is commonly used to build install images and packages.
For more information, see *note Makefile Conventions:
(standards)Makefile Conventions.

   Support for `DESTDIR' is implemented by coding it directly into the
install rules.  If your `' uses a local install rule (e.g.,
`install-exec-local') or an install hook, then you must write that code
to respect `DESTDIR'.

13.5 Rules for the user

Automake also generates an `uninstall' target, an `installdirs' target,
and an `install-strip' target.

   Automake supports `uninstall-local' and `uninstall-hook'.  There is
no notion of separate uninstalls for "exec" and "data", as these
features would not provide additional functionality.

   Note that `uninstall' is not meant as a replacement for a real
packaging tool.

File:,  Node: Clean,  Next: Dist,  Prev: Install,  Up: Top

14 What Gets Cleaned

The GNU Makefile Standards specify a number of different clean rules.
See *Note Standard Targets for Users: (standards)Standard Targets.

   Generally the files that can be cleaned are determined automatically
by Automake.  Of course, Automake also recognizes some variables that
can be defined to specify additional files to clean.  These variables

   As the GNU Standards aren't always explicit as to which files should
be removed by which target, we've adopted a heuristic which we believe
was first formulated by Franc,ois Pinard:

   * If `make' built it, and it is commonly something that one would
     want to rebuild (for instance, a `.o' file), then `mostlyclean'
     should delete it.

   * Otherwise, if `make' built it, then `clean' should delete it.

   * If `configure' built it, then `distclean' should delete it

   * If the maintainer built it, then `maintainer-clean' should delete

   We recommend that you follow this same set of heuristics in your

File:,  Node: Dist,  Next: Tests,  Prev: Clean,  Up: Top

15 What Goes in a Distribution

15.1 Basics of distribution

The `dist' target in the generated `' can be used to
generate a gzip'd `tar' file and other flavors of archive for
distribution.  The files is named based on the `PACKAGE' and `VERSION'
variables defined by `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' (*note Macros::); more
precisely the gzip'd `tar' file is named `PACKAGE-VERSION.tar.gz'.  You
can use the `make' variable `GZIP_ENV' to control how gzip is run.  The
default setting is `--best'.

   For the most part, the files to distribute are automatically found by
Automake: all source files are automatically included in a distribution,
as are all `'s and `'s.  Automake also has a
built-in list of commonly used files which are automatically included
if they are found in the current directory (either physically, or as
the target of a `' rule).  This list is printed by `automake
--help'.  Also, files which are read by `configure' (i.e. the source
files corresponding to the files specified in various Autoconf macros
such as `AC_CONFIG_FILES' and siblings) are automatically distributed.

   Still, sometimes there are files which must be distributed, but which
are not covered in the automatic rules.  These files should be listed in
the `EXTRA_DIST' variable.  You can mention files from subdirectories

   You can also mention a directory in `EXTRA_DIST'; in this case the
entire directory will be recursively copied into the distribution.
Please note that this will also copy _everything_ in the directory,
including CVS/RCS version control files.  We recommend against using
this feature.

15.2 Fine-grained distribution control

Sometimes you need tighter control over what does _not_ go into the
distribution; for instance you might have source files which are
generated and which you do not want to distribute.  In this case
Automake gives fine-grained control using the `dist' and `nodist'
prefixes.  Any primary or `_SOURCES' variable can be prefixed with
`dist_' to add the listed files to the distribution.  Similarly,
`nodist_' can be used to omit the files from the distribution.

   As an example, here is how you would cause some data to be
distributed while leaving some source code out of the distribution:

     dist_data_DATA = distribute-this
     bin_PROGRAMS = foo
     nodist_foo_SOURCES = do-not-distribute.c

15.3 The dist hook

Another way to to use this is for removing unnecessary files that get
recursively included by specifying a directory in EXTRA_DIST:

     EXTRA_DIST = doc

     	rm -rf `find $(distdir)/doc -name CVS`

   If you define `SUBDIRS', Automake will recursively include the
subdirectories in the distribution.  If `SUBDIRS' is defined
conditionally (*note Conditionals::), Automake will normally include all
directories that could possibly appear in `SUBDIRS' in the
distribution.  If you need to specify the set of directories
conditionally, you can set the variable `DIST_SUBDIRS' to the exact
list of subdirectories to include in the distribution.

   Occasionally it is useful to be able to change the distribution
before it is packaged up.  If the `dist-hook' target exists, it is run
after the distribution directory is filled, but before the actual tar
(or shar) file is created.  One way to use this is for distributing
files in subdirectories for which a new `' is overkill:

             mkdir $(distdir)/random
             cp -p $(srcdir)/random/a1 $(srcdir)/random/a2 $(distdir)/random

15.4 Checking the distribution

Automake also generates a `distcheck' target which can be of help to
ensure that a given distribution will actually work.  `distcheck' makes
a distribution, then tries to do a `VPATH' build, run the testsuite,
and finally make another tarfile to ensure the distribution is

   Building the package involves running `./configure'.  If you need to
supply additional flags to `configure', define them in the
`DISTCHECK_CONFIGURE_FLAGS' variable, either in your top-level
`', or on the commande line when invoking `make'.

   If the target `distcheck-hook' is defined in your `',
then it will be invoked by `distcheck' after the new distribution has
been unpacked, but before the unpacked copy is configured and built.
Your `distcheck-hook' can do almost anything, though as always caution
is advised.  Generally this hook is used to check for potential
distribution errors not caught by the standard mechanism.

   Speaking about potential distribution errors, `distcheck' will also
ensure that the `distclean' target actually removes all built files.
This is done by running `make distcleancheck' at the end of the `VPATH'
build.  By default, `distcleancheck' will run `distclean' and then make
sure the build tree has been emptied by running
`$(distcleancheck_listfiles)'.  Usually this check will find generated
files that you forgot to add to the `DISTCLEANFILES' variable (*note

   The `distcleancheck' behaviour should be ok for most packages,
otherwise you have the possibility to override the definitition of
either the `distcleancheck' target, or the
`$(distcleancheck_listfiles)' variable.  For instance to disable
`distcleancheck' completely, add the following rule to your top-level


   If you want `distcleancheck' to ignore built files which have not
been cleaned because they are also part of the distribution, add the
following definition instead:

     distcleancheck_listfiles = \
       find -type f -exec sh -c 'test -f $(scrdir)/{} || echo {}'

   The above definition is not the default because it's usually an
error if your Makefiles cause some distributed files to be rebuilt when
the user build the package.  (Think about the user missing the tool
required to build the file; or if the required tool is built by your
package, consider the cross-compilation case where it can't be run.)

15.5 The types of distributions

Automake generates a `.tar.gz' file when asked to create a distribution
and other archives formats, *note Options::.  The target `dist-gzip'
generates the `.tar.gz' file only.

File:,  Node: Tests,  Next: Options,  Prev: Dist,  Up: Top

16 Support for test suites

Automake supports two forms of test suites.

16.1 Simple Tests

If the variable `TESTS' is defined, its value is taken to be a list of
programs to run in order to do the testing.  The programs can either be
derived objects or source objects; the generated rule will look both in
`srcdir' and `.'.  Programs needing data files should look for them in
`srcdir' (which is both an environment variable and a make variable) so
they work when building in a separate directory (*note Build
Directories: (autoconf)Build Directories.), and in particular for the
`distcheck' target (*note Dist::).

   The number of failures will be printed at the end of the run.  If a
given test program exits with a status of 77, then its result is ignored
in the final count.  This feature allows non-portable tests to be
ignored in environments where they don't make sense.

   The variable `TESTS_ENVIRONMENT' can be used to set environment
variables for the test run; the environment variable `srcdir' is set in
the rule.  If all your test programs are scripts, you can also set
`TESTS_ENVIRONMENT' to an invocation of the shell (e.g.  `$(SHELL)
-x'); this can be useful for debugging the tests.

   You may define the variable `XFAIL_TESTS' to a list of tests
(usually a subset of `TESTS') that are expected to fail.  This will
reverse the result of those tests.

   Automake ensures that each program listed in `TESTS' is built before
any tests are run; you can list both source and derived programs in
`TESTS'.  For instance, you might want to run a C program as a test.
To do this you would list its name in `TESTS' and also in
`check_PROGRAMS', and then specify it as you would any other program.

16.2 DejaGNU Tests

If `dejagnu' ( appears in
`AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS', then a `dejagnu'-based test suite is assumed.  The
variable `DEJATOOL' is a list of names which are passed, one at a time,
as the `--tool' argument to `runtest' invocations; it defaults to the
name of the package.

   The variable `RUNTESTDEFAULTFLAGS' holds the `--tool' and `--srcdir'
flags that are passed to dejagnu by default; this can be overridden if

   The variables `EXPECT' and `RUNTEST' can also be overridden to
provide project-specific values.  For instance, you will need to do
this if you are testing a compiler toolchain, because the default
values do not take into account host and target names.

   The contents of the variable `RUNTESTFLAGS' are passed to the
`runtest' invocation.  This is considered a "user variable" (*note User
Variables::).  If you need to set `runtest' flags in `', you
can use `AM_RUNTESTFLAGS' instead.

   Automake will generate rules to create a local `site.exp' file,
defining various variables detected by `./configure'.  This file is
automatically read by DejaGnu.  It is ok for the user of a package to
edit this file in order to tune the test suite.  However this is not
the place where the test suite author should define new variables: this
should be done elsewhere in the real test suite code.  Especially,
`site.exp' should not be distributed.

   In either case, the testing is done via `make check'.

16.3 Install Tests

The `installcheck' target is available to the user as a way to run any
tests after the package has been installed.  You can add tests to this
by writing an `installcheck-local' target.

File:,  Node: Options,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: Tests,  Up: Top

17 Changing Automake's Behavior

Various features of Automake can be controlled by options in the
`'.  Such options are applied on a per-`Makefile' basis when
listed in a special `Makefile' variable named `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS'.  They
are applied globally to all processed `Makefiles' when listed in the
first argument of `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' in `'.  Currently
understood options are:

     Set the strictness as appropriate.  The `gnits' option also implies
     `readme-alpha' and `check-news'.

     Turn on automatic de-ANSI-fication.  *Note ANSI::.  If preceded by
     a path, the generated `' will look in the specified
     directory to find the `ansi2knr' program.  The path should be a
     relative path to another directory in the same distribution
     (Automake currently does not check this).

     Cause `make dist' to fail unless the current version number appears
     in the first few lines of the `NEWS' file.

     Cause `dejagnu'-specific rules to be generated.  *Note Tests::.

     Generate a `dist-bzip2' target, creating a bzip2 tar archive of the
     distribution.  `dist' will create it in addition to the other
     formats.  bzip2 archives are frequently smaller than gzipped

     Generate a `dist-shar' target, creating a shar archive of the
     distribution.  `dist' will create it in addition to the other

     Generate a `dist-zip' target, creating a zip archive of the
     distribution.  `dist' will create it in addition to the other

     Generate a `dist-tarZ' target, creating a compressed tar archive of
     the distribution.  `dist' will create it in addition to the other

     This options is meaningful only when passed as an argument to
     AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE.  It will prevent the `PACKAGE' and `VERSION'
     variable to be `AC_DEFINE'd.

     This is similar to using `--include-deps' on the command line, but
     is useful for those situations where you don't have the necessary
     bits to make automatic dependency tracking work *Note
     Dependencies::.  In this case the effect is to effectively disable
     automatic dependency tracking.

     If your `' defines a target `foo', it will override a
     target named `foo$(EXEEXT)'.  This is necessary when `EXEEXT' is
     found to be empty.  However, by default automake will generate an
     error for this use.  The `no-exeext' option will disable this
     error.  This is intended for use only where it is known in advance
     that the package will not be ported to Windows, or any other
     operating system using extensions on executables.

     The generated `' will not cause info pages to be built
     or installed by default.  However, `info' and `install-info'
     targets will still be available.  This option is disallowed at
     `GNU' strictness and above.

     The generated `' will not cause man pages to be
     installed by default.  However, an `install-man' target will still
     be available for optional installation.  This option is disallowed
     at `GNU' strictness and above.

     This option can be used to disable the standard `-I' options which
     are ordinarily automatically provided by Automake.

     Don't require `texinfo.tex', even if there are texinfo files in
     this directory.

     If this release is an alpha release, and the file `README-alpha'
     exists, then it will be added to the distribution.  If this option
     is given, version numbers are expected to follow one of two forms.
     The first form is `MAJOR.MINOR.ALPHA', where each element is a
     number; the final period and number should be left off for
     non-alpha releases.  The second form is `MAJOR.MINORALPHA', where
     ALPHA is a letter; it should be omitted for non-alpha releases.

     If this option is specified, then objects are placed into the
     subdirectory of the build directory corresponding to the
     subdirectory of the source file.  For instance if the source file
     is `subdir/file.cxx', then the output file would be

     A version number (e.g. `0.30') can be specified.  If Automake is
     not newer than the version specified, creation of the `'
     will be suppressed.

   Unrecognized options are diagnosed by `automake'.

   If you want an option to apply to all the files in the tree, you can
use the `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' macro in `'.  *Note Macros::.

File:,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Next: Include,  Prev: Options,  Up: Top

18 Miscellaneous Rules

There are a few rules and variables that didn't fit anywhere else.

* Menu:

* Tags::                        Interfacing to etags and mkid
* Suffixes::                    Handling new file extensions
* Multilibs::                   Support for multilibbing.

File:,  Node: Tags,  Next: Suffixes,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Miscellaneous

18.1 Interfacing to `etags'

Automake will generate rules to generate `TAGS' files for use with GNU
Emacs under some circumstances.

   If any C, C++ or Fortran 77 source code or headers are present, then
`tags' and `TAGS' targets will be generated for the directory.

   At the topmost directory of a multi-directory package, a `tags'
target file will be generated which, when run, will generate a `TAGS'
file that includes by reference all `TAGS' files from subdirectories.

   The `tags' target will also be generated if the variable
`ETAGS_ARGS' is defined.  This variable is intended for use in
directories which contain taggable source that `etags' does not
understand.  The user can use the `ETAGSFLAGS' to pass additional flags
to `etags'; `AM_ETAGSFLAGS' is also available for use in `'.

   Here is how Automake generates tags for its source, and for nodes in
its Texinfo file:

     ETAGS_ARGS = --lang=none \
      --regex='/^@node[ \t]+\([^,]+\)/\1/' automake16.texi

   If you add filenames to `ETAGS_ARGS', you will probably also want to
set `TAGS_DEPENDENCIES'.  The contents of this variable are added
directly to the dependencies for the `tags' target.

   Automake will also generate an `ID' target which will run `mkid' on
the source.  This is only supported on a directory-by-directory basis.

   Automake also supports the GNU Global Tags program
(  The `GTAGS' target runs Global
Tags automatically and puts the result in the top build directory.  The
variable `GTAGS_ARGS' holds arguments which are passed to `gtags'.

File:,  Node: Suffixes,  Next: Multilibs,  Prev: Tags,  Up: Miscellaneous

18.2 Handling new file extensions

It is sometimes useful to introduce a new implicit rule to handle a file
type that Automake does not know about.

   For instance, suppose you had a compiler which could compile `.foo'
files to `.o' files.  You would simply define an suffix rule for your

             foocc -c -o $@ $<

   Then you could directly use a `.foo' file in a `_SOURCES' variable
and expect the correct results:

     bin_PROGRAMS = doit
     doit_SOURCES =

   This was the simpler and more common case.  In other cases, you will
have to help Automake to figure which extensions you are defining your
suffix rule for.  This usually happens when your extensions does not
start with a dot.  Then, all you have to do is to put a list of new
suffixes in the `SUFFIXES' variable *before* you define your implicit

   For instance the following definition prevents Automake to
misinterpret `.idlC.cpp:' as an attemp to transform `.idlC' into `.cpp'.

     SUFFIXES = .idl C.cpp
             # whatever

   As you may have noted, the `SUFFIXES' macro behaves like the
`.SUFFIXES' special target of `make'.  You should not touch `.SUFFIXES'
yourself, but use `SUFFIXES' instead and let Automake generate the
suffix list for `.SUFFIXES'.  Any given `SUFFIXES' go at the start of
the generated suffixes list, followed by Automake generated suffixes
not already in the list.

File:,  Node: Multilibs,  Prev: Suffixes,  Up: Miscellaneous

18.3 Support for Multilibs

Automake has support for an obscure feature called multilibs.  A
"multilib" is a library which is built for multiple different ABIs at a
single time; each time the library is built with a different target
flag combination.  This is only useful when the library is intended to
be cross-compiled, and it is almost exclusively used for compiler
support libraries.

   The multilib support is still experimental.  Only use it if you are
familiar with multilibs and can debug problems you might encounter.

File:,  Node: Include,  Next: Conditionals,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Top

19 Include

Automake supports an `include' directive which can be used to include
other `Makefile' fragments when `automake' is run.  Note that these
fragments are read and interpreted by `automake', not by `make'.  As
with conditionals, `make' has no idea that `include' is in use.

   There are two forms of `include':

`include $(srcdir)/file'
     Include a fragment which is found relative to the current source

`include $(top_srcdir)/file'
     Include a fragment which is found relative to the top source

   Note that if a fragment is included inside a conditional, then the
condition applies to the entire contents of that fragment.

File:,  Node: Conditionals,  Next: Gnits,  Prev: Include,  Up: Top

20 Conditionals

Automake supports a simple type of conditionals.

   Before using a conditional, you must define it by using
`AM_CONDITIONAL' in the `' file (*note Macros::).

     The conditional name, CONDITIONAL, should be a simple string
     starting with a letter and containing only letters, digits, and
     underscores.  It must be different from `TRUE' and `FALSE' which
     are reserved by Automake.

     The shell CONDITION (suitable for use in a shell `if' statement)
     is evaluated when `configure' is run.  Note that you must arrange
     for _every_ `AM_CONDITIONAL' to be invoked every time `configure'
     is run - if `AM_CONDITIONAL' is run conditionally (e.g., in a
     shell `if' statement), then the result will confuse automake.

   Conditionals typically depend upon options which the user provides to
the `configure' script.  Here is an example of how to write a
conditional which is true if the user uses the `--enable-debug' option.

     [  --enable-debug    Turn on debugging],
     [case "${enableval}" in
       yes) debug=true ;;
       no)  debug=false ;;
       *) AC_MSG_ERROR(bad value ${enableval} for --enable-debug) ;;
     AM_CONDITIONAL(DEBUG, test x$debug = xtrue)

   Here is an example of how to use that conditional in `':

     if DEBUG
     DBG = debug
     DBG =
     noinst_PROGRAMS = $(DBG)

   This trivial example could also be handled using EXTRA_PROGRAMS
(*note Conditional Programs::).

   You may only test a single variable in an `if' statement, possibly
negated using `!'.  The `else' statement may be omitted.  Conditionals
may be nested to any depth.  You may specify an argument to `else' in
which case it must be the negation of the condition used for the
current `if'.  Similarly you may specify the condition which is closed
by an `end':

     if DEBUG
     DBG = debug
     else !DEBUG
     DBG =
     endif !DEBUG

Unbalanced conditions are errors.

   Conditionals do not interact very smoothly with the append operator.
In particular, an append must happen in the same conditional context as
the original assignment.  This means that the following will not work:

     DBG = foo
     if DEBUG
     DBG += bar
     endif DEBUG

   The behaviour which is probably desired in this situation can be
obtained using a temporary variable:

     if DEBUG
     TMP_DBG = bar
     endif DEBUG
     DBG = foo $(TMP_DBG)

   This restriction may be lifted in future versions of automake.

   Note that conditionals in Automake are not the same as conditionals
in GNU Make.  Automake conditionals are checked at configure time by the
`configure' script, and affect the translation from `' to
`Makefile'.  They are based on options passed to `configure' and on
results that `configure' has discovered about the host system.  GNU
Make conditionals are checked at `make' time, and are based on
variables passed to the make program or defined in the `Makefile'.

   Automake conditionals will work with any make program.

File:,  Node: Gnits,  Next: Cygnus,  Prev: Conditionals,  Up: Top

21 The effect of `--gnu' and `--gnits'

The `--gnu' option (or `gnu' in the `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' variable) causes
`automake' to check the following:

   * The files `INSTALL', `NEWS', `README', `COPYING', `AUTHORS', and
     `ChangeLog' are required at the topmost directory of the package.

   * The options `no-installman' and `no-installinfo' are prohibited.

   Note that this option will be extended in the future to do even more
checking; it is advisable to be familiar with the precise requirements
of the GNU standards.  Also, `--gnu' can require certain non-standard
GNU programs to exist for use by various maintainer-only targets; for
instance in the future `pathchk' might be required for `make dist'.

   The `--gnits' option does everything that `--gnu' does, and checks
the following as well:

   * `make dist' will check to make sure the `NEWS' file has been
     updated to the current version.

   * `VERSION' is checked to make sure its format complies with Gnits

   * If `VERSION' indicates that this is an alpha release, and the file
     `README-alpha' appears in the topmost directory of a package, then
     it is included in the distribution.  This is done in `--gnits'
     mode, and no other, because this mode is the only one where version
     number formats are constrained, and hence the only mode where
     Automake can automatically determine whether `README-alpha' should
     be included.

   * The file `THANKS' is required.

File:,  Node: Cygnus,  Next: Extending,  Prev: Gnits,  Up: Top

22 The effect of `--cygnus'

Some packages, notably GNU GCC and GNU gdb, have a build environment
originally written at Cygnus Support (subsequently renamed Cygnus
Solutions, and then later purchased by Red Hat).  Packages with this
ancestry are sometimes referred to as "Cygnus" trees.

   A Cygnus tree has slightly different rules for how a `'
is to be constructed.  Passing `--cygnus' to `automake' will cause any
generated `' to comply with Cygnus rules.

   Here are the precise effects of `--cygnus':

   * Info files are always created in the build directory, and not in
     the source directory.

   * `texinfo.tex' is not required if a Texinfo source file is
     specified.  The assumption is that the file will be supplied, but
     in a place that Automake cannot find.  This assumption is an
     artifact of how Cygnus packages are typically bundled.

   * `make dist' is not supported, and the rules for it are not
     generated.  Cygnus-style trees use their own distribution

   * Certain tools will be searched for in the build tree as well as in
     the user's `PATH'.  These tools are `runtest', `expect',
     `makeinfo' and `texi2dvi'.

   * `--foreign' is implied.

   * The options `no-installinfo' and `no-dependencies' are implied.

   * The macros `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' and `AM_CYGWIN32' are required.

   * The `check' target doesn't depend on `all'.

   GNU maintainers are advised to use `gnu' strictness in preference to
the special Cygnus mode.  Some day, perhaps, the differences between
Cygnus trees and GNU trees will disappear (for instance, as GCC is made
more standards compliant).  At that time the special Cygnus mode will be

File:,  Node: Extending,  Next: Distributing,  Prev: Cygnus,  Up: Top

23 When Automake Isn't Enough

Automake's implicit copying semantics means that many problems can be
worked around by simply adding some `make' targets and rules to
`'.  Automake will ignore these additions.

   There are some caveats to doing this.  Although you can overload a
target already used by Automake, it is often inadvisable, particularly
in the topmost directory of a package with subdirectories.  However,
various useful targets have a `-local' version you can specify in your
`'.  Automake will supplement the standard target with these
user-supplied targets.

   The targets that support a local version are `all', `info', `dvi',
`check', `install-data', `install-exec', `uninstall', `installdirs',
`installcheck' and the various `clean' targets (`mostlyclean', `clean',
`distclean', and `maintainer-clean').  Note that there are no
`uninstall-exec-local' or `uninstall-data-local' targets; just use
`uninstall-local'.  It doesn't make sense to uninstall just data or
just executables.

   For instance, here is one way to install a file in `/etc':

             $(INSTALL_DATA) $(srcdir)/afile $(DESTDIR)/etc/afile

   Some targets also have a way to run another target, called a "hook",
after their work is done.  The hook is named after the principal target,
with `-hook' appended.  The targets allowing hooks are `install-data',
`install-exec', `uninstall', `dist', and `distcheck'.

   For instance, here is how to create a hard link to an installed

             ln $(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/program $(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/proglink

File:,  Node: Distributing,  Next: API versioning,  Prev: Extending,  Up: Top

24 Distributing `'s

Automake places no restrictions on the distribution of the resulting
`'s.  We still encourage software authors to distribute
their work under terms like those of the GPL, but doing so is not
required to use Automake.

   Some of the files that can be automatically installed via the
`--add-missing' switch do fall under the GPL.  However, these also have
a special exception allowing you to distribute them with your package,
regardless of the licensing you choose.

File:,  Node: API versioning,  Next: Macro and Variable Index,  Prev: Distributing,  Up: Top

25 Automake API versioning

New Automake releases usually include bug fixes and new features.
Unfortunately they may also introduce new bugs and incompatibilities.
This makes four reasons why a package may require a particular Automake

   Things get worse when maintaining a large tree of packages, each one
requiring a different version of Automake.  In the past, this meant that
any developer (and sometime users) had to install several versions of
Automake in different places, and switch `$PATH' appropriately for each

   Starting with version 1.6, Automake installs versioned binaries.
This means you can install several versions of Automake in the same
`$prefix', and can select an arbitrary Automake version by running
`automake-1.6' or `automake-1.7' without juggling with `$PATH'.
Furthermore, `Makefile''s generated by Automake 1.6 will use
`automake-1.6' explicitely in their rebuild rules.

   Note that `1.6' in `automake-1.6' is Automake's API version, not
Automake's version.  If a bug fix release is made, for instance
Automake 1.6.1, the API version will remain 1.6.  This means that a
package which work with Automake 1.6 should also work with 1.6.1; after
all, this is what people expect from bug fix releases.

   Note that if your package relies on a feature or a bug fix
introduced in a release, you can pass this version as an option to
Automake to ensure older releases will not be used.  For instance, use
this in your `':

       AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(1.6.1)    dnl Require Automake 1.6.1 or better.
   or, in a particular `':

       AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS = 1.6.1   # Require Automake 1.6.1 or better.
   Automake will print an error message if its version is older than
the requested version.

What is in the API

Automake's programing interface is not easy to define.  Basically it
should include at least all *documented* variables and targets that a
`' authors can use, the behaviours associated to them (e.g.
the places where `-hook''s are run), the command line interface of
`automake' and `aclocal', ...

What is not in the API

Every undocumented variable, target, or command line option, is not part
of the API.  You should avoid using them, as they could change from one
version to the other (even in bug fix releases, if this helps to fix a

   If it turns out you need to use such a undocumented feature, contact
<> and try to get it documented and exercised by the

File:,  Node: Macro and Variable Index,  Next: General Index,  Prev: API versioning,  Up: Top

Macro and Variable Index

* Menu:

* _LDADD:                                Linking.             (line  17)
* _LDFLAGS:                              Linking.             (line  39)
* _LIBADD:                               A Library.           (line  27)
* _SOURCES:                              Program Sources.     (line  35)
* _TEXINFOS:                             Texinfo.             (line  49)
* AC_CANONICAL_HOST:                     Optional.            (line  34)
* AC_CANONICAL_SYSTEM:                   Optional.            (line  39)
* AC_CHECK_PROG:                         Optional.            (line 136)
* AC_CHECK_PROGS:                        Optional.            (line 136)
* AC_CHECK_TOOL:                         Optional.            (line 136)
* AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR:                     Optional.            (line  22)
* AC_CONFIG_HEADER:                      Optional.            (line  14)
* AC_F77_LIBRARY_LDFLAGS:                Optional.            (line  94)
* AC_FUNC_ALLOCA:                        Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_ERROR_AT_LINE:                 Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_FNMATCH:                       Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_GETLOADAVG:                    Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_MEMCMP:                        Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_MKTIME:                        Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_OBSTACK:                       Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_FUNC_STRTOD:                        Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_LIBOBJ:                             Optional.            (line  77)
* AC_LIBSOURCE:                          Optional.            (line  77)
* AC_LIBSOURCES:                         Optional.            (line  77)
* AC_OUTPUT:                             Requirements.        (line  24)
* AC_PATH_PROG:                          Optional.            (line 136)
* AC_PATH_PROGS:                         Optional.            (line 136)
* AC_PATH_XTRA:                          Optional.            (line  28)
* AC_PROG_CXX:                           Optional.            (line  83)
* AC_PROG_F77:                           Optional.            (line  88)
* AC_PROG_LEX:                           Optional.            (line 108)
* AC_PROG_LIBTOOL:                       Optional.            (line  98)
* AC_PROG_RANLIB:                        Optional.            (line  79)
* AC_PROG_YACC:                          Optional.            (line 104)
* AC_REPLACE_FUNCS:                      Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_REPLACE_GNU_GETOPT:                 Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_STRUCT_ST_BLOCKS:                   Optional.            (line  60)
* AC_SUBST:                              Optional.            (line 136)
* ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS:                       Rebuilding.          (line  17)
* AM_C_PROTOTYPES <1>:                   ANSI.                (line  30)
* AM_C_PROTOTYPES <2>:                   Public macros.       (line  23)
* AM_C_PROTOTYPES:                       Optional.            (line 112)
* AM_CFLAGS:                             Program variables.   (line  32)
* AM_CONDITIONAL:                        Conditionals.        (line   8)
* AM_CONFIG_HEADER:                      Public macros.       (line   8)
* AM_CPPFLAGS:                           Program variables.   (line  15)
* am_cv_sys_posix_termios:               Public macros.       (line 120)
* AM_CXXFLAGS:                           C++ Support.         (line  22)
* AM_ETAGSFLAGS:                         Tags.                (line  20)
* AM_FFLAGS:                             Fortran 77 Support.  (line  22)
* AM_GCJFLAGS:                           Java Support.        (line  24)
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT:                        Optional.            (line 118)
* AM_HEADER_TIOCGWINSZ_NEEDS_SYS_IOCTL:  Public macros.       (line  28)
* AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE:                      Requirements.        (line   8)
* AM_JAVACFLAGS:                         Java.                (line  30)
* AM_LDFLAGS <1>:                        Program variables.   (line  42)
* AM_LDFLAGS:                            Linking.             (line  10)
* AM_MAINTAINER_MODE:                    Optional.            (line 125)
* AM_MAKEINFOFLAGS:                      Texinfo.             (line  44)
* AM_PATH_LISPDIR:                       Public macros.       (line  84)
* AM_PROG_GCJ:                           Public macros.       (line 117)
* AM_RFLAGS:                             Fortran 77 Support.  (line  28)
* AM_RUNTESTFLAGS:                       Tests.               (line  62)
* AM_WITH_REGEX:                         Optional.            (line  60)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS <1>:                  Options.             (line  11)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS <2>:                  Dependencies.        (line  33)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS:                      ANSI.                (line  14)
* bin_PROGRAMS:                          Program Sources.     (line   6)
* bin_SCRIPTS:                           Scripts.             (line  23)
* build_alias:                           Optional.            (line  39)
* BUILT_SOURCES:                         Sources.             (line   8)
* CC:                                    Program variables.   (line  11)
* CCAS:                                  Assembly Support.    (line  11)
* CCASFLAGS:                             Assembly Support.    (line  11)
* CFLAGS:                                Program variables.   (line  11)
* check_LTLIBRARIES:                     A Shared Library.    (line  18)
* check_PROGRAMS:                        Program Sources.     (line   6)
* check_SCRIPTS:                         Scripts.             (line  23)
* CLASSPATH_ENV:                         Java.                (line  39)
* CLEANFILES:                            Clean.               (line  13)
* COMPILE:                               Program variables.   (line  38)
* CPPFLAGS:                              Program variables.   (line  11)
* CXX:                                   C++ Support.         (line  16)
* CXXCOMPILE:                            C++ Support.         (line  25)
* CXXFLAGS:                              C++ Support.         (line  19)
* CXXLINK:                               C++ Support.         (line  29)
* DATA <1>:                              Data.                (line   7)
* DATA:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* data_DATA:                             Data.                (line   9)
* DEFS:                                  Program variables.   (line  11)
* DEJATOOL:                              Tests.               (line  57)
* DESTDIR:                               Install.             (line  76)
* dist_:                                 Dist.                (line  47)
* DIST_SUBDIRS:                          Dist.                (line  73)
* DISTCHECK_CONFIGURE_FLAGS:             Dist.                (line  97)
* distcleancheck_listfiles:              Dist.                (line  88)
* DISTCLEANFILES:                        Clean.               (line  13)
* ELCFILES:                              Emacs Lisp.          (line  11)
* ETAGS_ARGS:                            Tags.                (line  20)
* ETAGSFLAGS:                            Tags.                (line  20)
* EXPECT:                                Tests.               (line  57)
* EXTRA_DIST:                            Dist.                (line  38)
* EXTRA_PROGRAMS:                        Conditional Programs.
                                                              (line  15)
* F77:                                   Fortran 77 Support.  (line  16)
* F77COMPILE:                            Fortran 77 Support.  (line  31)
* FFLAGS:                                Fortran 77 Support.  (line  19)
* FLINK:                                 Fortran 77 Support.  (line  35)
* GCJFLAGS:                              Java Support.        (line  14)
* GTAGS_ARGS:                            Tags.                (line  38)
* HEADERS <1>:                           Headers.             (line   8)
* HEADERS:                               Uniform.             (line  79)
* host_alias:                            Optional.            (line  34)
* host_triplet:                          Optional.            (line  34)
* include_HEADERS:                       Headers.             (line  16)
* INCLUDES:                              Program variables.   (line  27)
* info_TEXINFOS:                         Texinfo.             (line  10)
* JAVA:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* JAVAC:                                 Java.                (line  23)
* JAVACFLAGS:                            Java.                (line  26)
* JAVAROOT:                              Java.                (line  35)
* LDADD:                                 Linking.             (line  10)
* LDFLAGS:                               Program variables.   (line  11)
* lib_LIBRARIES:                         A Library.           (line   6)
* lib_LTLIBRARIES:                       A Shared Library.    (line  18)
* LIBADD:                                A Library.           (line  27)
* libexec_PROGRAMS:                      Program Sources.     (line   6)
* libexec_SCRIPTS:                       Scripts.             (line  23)
* LIBOBJS:                               Optional.            (line  77)
* LIBRARIES:                             Uniform.             (line  79)
* LIBS:                                  Program variables.   (line  11)
* LINK:                                  Program variables.   (line  47)
* LISP <1>:                              Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* LISP:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* lisp_LISP:                             Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* localstate_DATA:                       Data.                (line   9)
* MAINTAINERCLEANFILES:                  Clean.               (line  13)
* MAKE:                                  Top level.           (line  54)
* MAKEFLAGS:                             Top level.           (line  54)
* MAKEINFO:                              Texinfo.             (line  44)
* MAKEINFOFLAGS:                         Texinfo.             (line  44)
* man_MANS:                              Man pages.           (line  10)
* MANS <1>:                              Man pages.           (line  10)
* MANS:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* MOSTLYCLEANFILES:                      Clean.               (line  13)
* nodist_:                               Dist.                (line  47)
* noinst_HEADERS:                        Headers.             (line   6)
* noinst_LIBRARIES:                      A Library.           (line   6)
* noinst_LISP:                           Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* noinst_LTLIBRARIES:                    A Shared Library.    (line  18)
* noinst_PROGRAMS:                       Program Sources.     (line   6)
* noinst_SCRIPTS:                        Scripts.             (line  23)
* oldinclude_HEADERS:                    Headers.             (line  16)
* PACKAGE:                               Dist.                (line  13)
* PACKAGE, directory:                    Uniform.             (line  28)
* PACKAGE, prevent definition:           Public macros.       (line  71)
* pkgdata_DATA:                          Data.                (line   9)
* pkgdata_SCRIPTS:                       Scripts.             (line  23)
* pkgdatadir:                            Uniform.             (line  20)
* pkginclude_HEADERS:                    Headers.             (line  16)
* pkgincludedir:                         Uniform.             (line  20)
* pkglib_LIBRARIES:                      A Library.           (line   6)
* pkglib_LTLIBRARIES:                    A Shared Library.    (line  18)
* pkglib_PROGRAMS:                       Program Sources.     (line   6)
* pkglibdir:                             Uniform.             (line  20)
* pkgpyexecdir:                          Python.              (line  67)
* pkgpythondir:                          Python.              (line  58)
* PROGRAMS:                              Uniform.             (line  18)
* pyexecdir:                             Python.              (line  63)
* PYTHON <1>:                            Python.              (line  32)
* PYTHON:                                Uniform.             (line  79)
* PYTHON_EXEC_PREFIX:                    Python.              (line  44)
* PYTHON_PLATFORM:                       Python.              (line  49)
* PYTHON_PREFIX:                         Python.              (line  39)
* PYTHON_VERSION:                        Python.              (line  35)
* pythondir:                             Python.              (line  54)
* RFLAGS:                                Fortran 77 Support.  (line  25)
* RUNTEST:                               Tests.               (line  57)
* RUNTESTDEFAULTFLAGS:                   Tests.               (line  52)
* RUNTESTFLAGS:                          Tests.               (line  62)
* sbin_PROGRAMS:                         Program Sources.     (line   6)
* sbin_SCRIPTS:                          Scripts.             (line  23)
* SCRIPTS <1>:                           Scripts.             (line   9)
* SCRIPTS:                               Uniform.             (line  79)
* sharedstate_DATA:                      Data.                (line   9)
* SOURCES:                               Program Sources.     (line  35)
* SUBDIRS:                               Top level.           (line   8)
* SUFFIXES:                              Suffixes.            (line   6)
* sysconf_DATA:                          Data.                (line   9)
* TAGS_DEPENDENCIES:                     Tags.                (line  30)
* target_alias:                          Optional.            (line  39)
* TESTS:                                 Tests.               (line  29)
* TESTS_ENVIRONMENT:                     Tests.               (line  29)
* TEXINFO_TEX:                           Texinfo.             (line  60)
* TEXINFOS <1>:                          Texinfo.             (line  10)
* TEXINFOS:                              Uniform.             (line  79)
* VERSION:                               Dist.                (line  13)
* VERSION, prevent definition:           Public macros.       (line  71)
* WITH_DMALLOC:                          Public macros.       (line 126)
* WITH_REGEX:                            Public macros.       (line 132)
* XFAIL_TESTS:                           Tests.               (line  33)
* YACC:                                  Optional.            (line 104)

File:,  Node: General Index,  Prev: Macro and Variable Index,  Up: Top

General Index

* Menu:

* ## (special Automake comment):         General Operation.   (line  58)
* --acdir:                               Invoking aclocal.    (line  35)
* --add-missing:                         Invoking Automake.   (line  32)
* --copy:                                Invoking Automake.   (line  48)
* --cygnus:                              Invoking Automake.   (line  52)
* --enable-maintainer-mode:              Optional.            (line 121)
* --force-missing:                       Invoking Automake.   (line  57)
* --foreign:                             Invoking Automake.   (line  63)
* --gnits:                               Invoking Automake.   (line  67)
* --gnu:                                 Invoking Automake.   (line  71)
* --help <1>:                            Invoking aclocal.    (line  39)
* --help:                                Invoking Automake.   (line  75)
* --include-deps:                        Invoking Automake.   (line  83)
* --libdir:                              Invoking Automake.   (line  43)
* --no-force:                            Invoking Automake.   (line  88)
* --output:                              Invoking aclocal.    (line  46)
* --output-dir:                          Invoking Automake.   (line  95)
* --print-ac-dir:                        Invoking aclocal.    (line  49)
* --verbose <1>:                         Invoking aclocal.    (line  55)
* --verbose:                             Invoking Automake.   (line 102)
* --version <1>:                         Invoking aclocal.    (line  58)
* --version:                             Invoking Automake.   (line 106)
* --Werror:                              Invoking Automake.   (line 110)
* --with-dmalloc:                        Public macros.       (line 126)
* --with-regex:                          Public macros.       (line 132)
* --Wno-error:                           Invoking Automake.   (line 110)
* -a:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  32)
* -c:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  47)
* -enable-debug, example:                Conditionals.        (line  23)
* -f:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  56)
* -gnits, complete description:          Gnits.               (line  20)
* -gnu, complete description:            Gnits.               (line   6)
* -gnu, required files:                  Gnits.               (line   6)
* -hook targets:                         Extending.           (line  30)
* -I:                                    Invoking aclocal.    (line  42)
* -i:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  79)
* -local targets:                        Extending.           (line  10)
* -o:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  95)
* -v:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line 102)
* @ALLOCA@, special handling:            LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* @LIBOBJS@, special handling:           LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* @LTLIBOBJS@, special handling:         A Shared Library.    (line  28)
* _DATA primary, defined:                Data.                (line   6)
* _DEPENDENCIES, defined:                Linking.             (line  41)
* _HEADERS primary, defined:             Headers.             (line   6)
* _JAVA primary, defined:                Java.                (line   6)
* _LDFLAGS, defined:                     Linking.             (line  37)
* _LIBADD primary, defined:              A Library.           (line  25)
* _LIBRARIES primary, defined:           A Library.           (line   6)
* _LISP primary, defined:                Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* _LTLIBRARIES primary, defined:         A Shared Library.    (line  10)
* _MANS primary, defined:                Man pages.           (line   6)
* _PROGRAMS primary variable:            Uniform.             (line  12)
* _PYTHON primary, defined:              Python.              (line   6)
* _SCRIPTS primary, defined:             Scripts.             (line   6)
* _SOURCES and header files:             Program Sources.     (line  41)
* _SOURCES primary, defined:             Program Sources.     (line  32)
* _TEXINFOS primary, defined:            Texinfo.             (line   6)
* AC_OUTPUT, scanning:                   Requirements.        (line  13)
* acinclude.m4, defined:                 Complete.            (line  23)
* aclocal program, introduction:         Complete.            (line  23)
* aclocal, extending:                    Extending aclocal.   (line   6)
* aclocal, Invoking:                     Invoking aclocal.    (line   6)
* aclocal.m4, preexisting:               Complete.            (line  23)
* Adding new SUFFIXES:                   Suffixes.            (line   6)
* all:                                   Extending.           (line  23)
* all-local:                             Extending.           (line  17)
* AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE, example use:         Complete.            (line  11)
* ansi2knr:                              ANSI.                (line  14)
* Append operator:                       General Operation.   (line  23)
* Automake constraints:                  Introduction.        (line  22)
* Automake options:                      Invoking Automake.   (line  28)
* Automake requirements <1>:             Requirements.        (line   6)
* Automake requirements:                 Introduction.        (line  27)
* Automake, invoking:                    Invoking Automake.   (line   6)
* Automake, recursive operation:         General Operation.   (line  48)
* Automatic dependency tracking:         Dependencies.        (line  11)
* Automatic linker selection:            How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line   6)
* Auxiliary programs:                    Auxiliary Programs.  (line   6)
* Avoiding path stripping:               Alternative.         (line  24)
* BUGS, reporting:                       Introduction.        (line  31)
* BUILT_SOURCES, defined:                Sources.             (line   6)
* C++ support:                           C++ Support.         (line   6)
* canonicalizing Automake macros:        Canonicalization.    (line   6)
* cfortran:                              Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* check:                                 Extending.           (line  23)
* check primary prefix, definition:      Uniform.             (line  74)
* check-local:                           Extending.           (line  17)
* check_LTLIBRARIES, not allowed:        A Shared Library.    (line  18)
* clean-local:                           Extending.           (line  17)
* Comment, special to Automake:          General Operation.   (line  58)
* Complete example:                      Complete.            (line   6)
* Conditional example,  -enable-debug:   Conditionals.        (line  23)
* Conditionals:                          Conditionals.        (line   6)
* config.guess:                          Invoking Automake.   (line  30)
*, from GNU Hello:          Hello.               (line  16)
*, scanning:                configure.           (line   6)
* Constraints of Automake:               Introduction.        (line  22)
* cpio example:                          Uniform.             (line  37)
* ctags Example:                         etags.               (line   6)
* cvs-dist:                              General Operation.   (line  12)
* cvs-dist, non-standard example:        General Operation.   (line  12)
* Cygnus strictness:                     Cygnus.              (line   6)
* DATA primary, defined:                 Data.                (line   6)
* de-ANSI-fication, defined:             ANSI.                (line   6)
* dejagnu:                               Tests.               (line  57)
* depcomp:                               Dependencies.        (line  22)
* Dependency tracking:                   Dependencies.        (line  11)
* Dependency tracking, disabling:        Dependencies.        (line  36)
* Disabling dependency tracking:         Dependencies.        (line  36)
* dist:                                  Dist.                (line  13)
* dist-bzip2:                            Options.             (line  39)
* dist-gzip:                             Dist.                (line 141)
* dist-hook <1>:                         Extending.           (line  33)
* dist-hook:                             Dist.                (line  75)
* dist-shar:                             Options.             (line  44)
* dist-tarZ:                             Options.             (line  54)
* dist-zip:                              Options.             (line  49)
* dist_ and nobase_:                     Alternative.         (line  30)
* distcheck:                             Dist.                (line  92)
* distclean-local:                       Extending.           (line  17)
* distcleancheck:                        Dist.                (line 113)
* dmalloc, support for:                  Public macros.       (line 126)
* dvi:                                   Extending.           (line  23)
* dvi-local:                             Extending.           (line  17)
* E-mail, bug reports:                   Introduction.        (line  31)
* EDITION Texinfo macro:                 Texinfo.             (line  12)
* else:                                  Conditionals.        (line  38)
* endif:                                 Conditionals.        (line  38)
* etags Example:                         etags.               (line   6)
* Example conditional -enable-debug:     Conditionals.        (line  23)
* Example of recursive operation:        General Operation.   (line  48)
* Example of shared libraries:           A Shared Library.    (line  10)
* Example, ctags and etags:              etags.               (line   6)
* Example, EXTRA_PROGRAMS:               Uniform.             (line  37)
* Example, GNU Hello:                    Hello.               (line   6)
* Example, handling Texinfo files:       Hello.               (line  61)
* Example, mixed language:               Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  37)
* Example, regression test:              Hello.               (line  69)
* Executable extension:                  EXEEXT.              (line   6)
* Exit status 77, special interpretation: Tests.              (line  20)
* Expected test failure:                 Tests.               (line  31)
* Extending aclocal:                     Extending aclocal.   (line   6)
* Extending list of installation directories: Uniform.        (line  56)
* Extension, executable:                 EXEEXT.              (line   6)
* Extra files distributed with Automake: Invoking Automake.   (line  30)
* EXTRA_, prepending:                    Uniform.             (line  30)
* EXTRA_prog_SOURCES, defined:           Conditional Sources. (line  18)
* EXTRA_PROGRAMS, defined <1>:           Conditional Programs.
                                                              (line  10)
* EXTRA_PROGRAMS, defined:               Uniform.             (line  37)
* Files distributed with Automake:       Invoking Automake.   (line  30)
* First line of             General Operation.   (line  64)
* FLIBS, defined:                        Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  21)
* foreign strictness:                    Strictness.          (line  10)
* Fortran 77 support:                    Fortran 77 Support.  (line   6)
* Fortran 77, mixing with C and C++:     Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* Fortran 77, Preprocessing:             Preprocessing Fortran 77.
                                                              (line   6)
* Gettext support:                       gettext.             (line   6)
* gnits strictness:                      Strictness.          (line  10)
* GNU Gettext support:                   gettext.             (line   6)
* GNU Hello,               Hello.               (line  16)
* GNU Hello, example:                    Hello.               (line   6)
* GNU make extensions:                   General Operation.   (line  19)
* GNU Makefile standards:                Introduction.        (line  12)
* gnu strictness:                        Strictness.          (line  10)
* Header files in _SOURCES:              Program Sources.     (line  41)
* HEADERS primary, defined:              Headers.             (line   6)
* HEADERS, installation directories:     Headers.             (line  16)
* Hello example:                         Hello.               (line   6)
* Hello,                   Hello.               (line  16)
* hook targets:                          Extending.           (line  30)
* HP-UX 10, lex problems:                Public macros.       (line 110)
* HTML support, example:                 Uniform.             (line  63)
* id:                                    Tags.                (line  33)
* if:                                    Conditionals.        (line  38)
* include:                               Include.             (line   6)
* INCLUDES, example usage:               Hello.               (line  77)
* Including Makefile fragment:           Include.             (line   6)
* info <1>:                              Extending.           (line  23)
* info:                                  Options.             (line  81)
* info-local:                            Extending.           (line  17)
* install:                               Install.             (line  45)
* Install hook:                          Install.             (line  71)
* Install, two parts of:                 Install.             (line  45)
* install-data <1>:                      Extending.           (line  23)
* install-data:                          Install.             (line  45)
* install-data-hook:                     Extending.           (line  33)
* install-data-local <1>:                Extending.           (line  17)
* install-data-local:                    Install.             (line  65)
* install-exec <1>:                      Extending.           (line  23)
* install-exec:                          Install.             (line  45)
* install-exec-hook:                     Extending.           (line  33)
* install-exec-local <1>:                Extending.           (line  17)
* install-exec-local:                    Install.             (line  65)
* install-info <1>:                      Options.             (line  81)
* install-info:                          Texinfo.             (line  71)
* install-info target:                   Texinfo.             (line  71)
* install-man <1>:                       Options.             (line  87)
* install-man:                           Man pages.           (line  37)
* install-man target:                    Man pages.           (line  32)
* install-strip:                         Install.             (line 102)
* Installation directories, extending list: Uniform.          (line  56)
* Installation support:                  Install.             (line   6)
* installcheck-local:                    Extending.           (line  17)
* installdirs:                           Install.             (line 102)
* installdirs-local:                     Extending.           (line  17)
* Installing headers:                    Headers.             (line  16)
* Installing scripts:                    Scripts.             (line  23)
* Invoking aclocal:                      Invoking aclocal.    (line   6)
* Invoking Automake:                     Invoking Automake.   (line   6)
* JAVA primary, defined:                 Java.                (line   6)
* JAVA restrictions:                     Java.                (line  13)
* Java support:                          Java Support.        (line   6)
* lex problems with HP-UX 10:            Public macros.       (line 110)
* lex, multiple lexers:                  Yacc and Lex.        (line  46)
* LIBADD primary, defined:               A Library.           (line  25)
* LIBRARIES primary, defined:            A Library.           (line   6)
* Linking Fortran 77 with C and C++:     Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* LISP primary, defined:                 Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* local targets:                         Extending.           (line  10)
* LTLIBRARIES primary, defined:          A Shared Library.    (line  10)
* Macros Automake recognizes:            Optional.            (line   6)
* Macros, overriding:                    General Operation.   (line  41)
* make check:                            Tests.               (line   6)
* make clean support:                    Clean.               (line   6)
* make dist:                             Dist.                (line   9)
* make distcheck:                        Dist.                (line  88)
* make distcleancheck:                   Dist.                (line  88)
* make install support:                  Install.             (line   6)
* Make targets, overriding:              General Operation.   (line  35)
* Makefile fragment, including:          Include.             (line   6)
*, first line:               General Operation.   (line  64)
* MANS primary, defined:                 Man pages.           (line   6)
* mdate-sh:                              Texinfo.             (line  12)
* Mixed language example:                Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  37)
* Mixing Fortran 77 with C and C++:      Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* Mixing Fortran 77 with C and/or C++:   Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* mostlyclean-local:                     Extending.           (line  17)
* Multiple files:           Invoking Automake.   (line   6)
* Multiple lex lexers:                   Yacc and Lex.        (line  46)
* Multiple yacc parsers:                 Yacc and Lex.        (line  46)
* no-dependencies:                       Dependencies.        (line  33)
* no-installinfo:                        Texinfo.             (line  71)
* no-installman:                         Man pages.           (line  37)
* no-texinfo.tex:                        Texinfo.             (line  67)
* nobase_:                               Alternative.         (line  24)
* nobase_ and dist_ or nodist_:          Alternative.         (line  30)
* nodist_ and nobase_:                   Alternative.         (line  30)
* noinst primary prefix, definition:     Uniform.             (line  69)
* noinstall-info target:                 Texinfo.             (line  71)
* noinstall-man target:                  Man pages.           (line  32)
* Non-GNU packages:                      Strictness.          (line   6)
* Non-standard targets:                  General Operation.   (line  12)
* Objects in subdirectory:               Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* Option, ansi2knr:                      Options.             (line  22)
* Option, check-news:                    Options.             (line  29)
* Option, cygnus:                        Options.             (line  17)
* Option, dejagnu:                       Options.             (line  33)
* Option, dist-bzip2:                    Options.             (line  36)
* Option, dist-shar:                     Options.             (line  42)
* Option, dist-tarZ:                     Options.             (line  52)
* Option, dist-zip:                      Options.             (line  47)
* Option, foreign:                       Options.             (line  17)
* Option, gnits:                         Options.             (line  17)
* Option, gnu:                           Options.             (line  17)
* Option, no-define:                     Options.             (line  57)
* Option, no-dependencies:               Options.             (line  62)
* Option, no-exeext:                     Options.             (line  69)
* Option, no-installinfo:                Options.             (line  78)
* Option, no-installman:                 Options.             (line  84)
* Option, no-texinfo:                    Options.             (line  94)
* Option, nostdinc:                      Options.             (line  90)
* Option, readme-alpha:                  Options.             (line  98)
* Option, version:                       Options.             (line 114)
* Options, Automake:                     Invoking Automake.   (line  28)
* Overriding make macros:                General Operation.   (line  41)
* Overriding make targets:               General Operation.   (line  35)
* Overriding SUBDIRS:                    Top level.           (line  27)
* Path stripping, avoiding:              Alternative.         (line  24)
* pkgdatadir, defined:                   Uniform.             (line  20)
* pkgincludedir, defined:                Uniform.             (line  20)
* pkglibdir, defined:                    Uniform.             (line  20)
* POSIX termios headers:                 Public macros.       (line 120)
* Preprocessing Fortran 77:              Preprocessing Fortran 77.
                                                              (line   6)
* Primary variable, DATA:                Data.                (line   6)
* Primary variable, defined:             Uniform.             (line  12)
* Primary variable, HEADERS:             Headers.             (line   6)
* Primary variable, JAVA:                Java.                (line   6)
* Primary variable, LIBADD:              A Library.           (line  25)
* Primary variable, LIBRARIES:           A Library.           (line   6)
* Primary variable, LISP:                Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* Primary variable, LTLIBRARIES:         A Shared Library.    (line  10)
* Primary variable, MANS:                Man pages.           (line   6)
* Primary variable, PROGRAMS:            Uniform.             (line  12)
* Primary variable, PYTHON:              Python.              (line   6)
* Primary variable, SCRIPTS:             Scripts.             (line   6)
* Primary variable, SOURCES:             Program Sources.     (line  32)
* Primary variable, TEXINFOS:            Texinfo.             (line   6)
* prog_LDADD, defined:                   Linking.             (line  12)
* PROGRAMS primary variable:             Uniform.             (line  12)
* Programs, auxiliary:                   Auxiliary Programs.  (line   6)
* PROGRAMS, bindir:                      Program Sources.     (line   6)
* PYTHON primary, defined:               Python.              (line   6)
* Ratfor programs:                       Preprocessing Fortran 77.
                                                              (line   6)
* README-alpha:                          Gnits.               (line  29)
* Recognized macros by Automake:         Optional.            (line   6)
* Recursive operation of Automake:       General Operation.   (line  48)
* regex package:                         Public macros.       (line 132)
* Regression test example:               Hello.               (line  69)
* Reporting BUGS:                        Introduction.        (line  31)
* Requirements of Automake:              Requirements.        (line   6)
* Requirements, Automake:                Introduction.        (line  27)
* Restrictions for JAVA:                 Java.                (line  13)
* rx package:                            Public macros.       (line 132)
* Scanning                 configure.           (line   6)
* SCRIPTS primary, defined:              Scripts.             (line   6)
* SCRIPTS, installation directories:     Scripts.             (line  23)
* Selecting the linker automatically:    How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line   6)
* Shared libraries, support for:         A Shared Library.    (line   6)
* site.exp:                              Tests.               (line  64)
* SOURCES primary, defined:              Program Sources.     (line  32)
* Special Automake comment:              General Operation.   (line  58)
* Strictness, command line:              Invoking Automake.   (line  28)
* Strictness, defined:                   Strictness.          (line  10)
* Strictness, foreign:                   Strictness.          (line  10)
* Strictness, gnits:                     Strictness.          (line  10)
* Strictness, gnu:                       Strictness.          (line  10)
* Subdirectory, objects in:              Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* SUBDIRS, explained:                    Top level.           (line   6)
* SUBDIRS, overriding:                   Top level.           (line  27)
* suffix .la, defined:                   A Shared Library.    (line  10)
* suffix .lo, defined:                   A Shared Library.    (line  23)
* SUFFIXES, adding:                      Suffixes.            (line   6)
* Support for C++:                       C++ Support.         (line   6)
* Support for Fortran 77:                Fortran 77 Support.  (line   6)
* Support for GNU Gettext:               gettext.             (line   6)
* Support for Java:                      Java Support.        (line   6)
* tags:                                  Tags.                (line  10)
* TAGS support:                          Tags.                (line   6)
* Target, install-info:                  Texinfo.             (line  71)
* Target, install-man:                   Man pages.           (line  32)
* Target, noinstall-info:                Texinfo.             (line  71)
* Target, noinstall-man:                 Man pages.           (line  32)
* termios POSIX headers:                 Public macros.       (line 120)
* Test suites:                           Tests.               (line   6)
* Tests, expected failure:               Tests.               (line  31)
* Texinfo file handling example:         Hello.               (line  61)
* Texinfo macro, EDITION:                Texinfo.             (line  12)
* Texinfo macro, UPDATED:                Texinfo.             (line  12)
* Texinfo macro, UPDATED-MONTH:          Texinfo.             (line  12)
* Texinfo macro, VERSION:                Texinfo.             (line  12)
* texinfo.tex:                           Texinfo.             (line  54)
* TEXINFOS primary, defined:             Texinfo.             (line   6)
* Uniform naming scheme:                 Uniform.             (line   6)
* uninstall <1>:                         Extending.           (line  23)
* uninstall:                             Install.             (line 102)
* uninstall-hook:                        Extending.           (line  33)
* uninstall-local:                       Extending.           (line  17)
* UPDATED Texinfo macro:                 Texinfo.             (line  12)
* UPDATED-MONTH Texinfo macro:           Texinfo.             (line  12)
* user variables:                        User Variables.      (line   6)
* variables, reserved for the user:      User Variables.      (line   6)
* VERSION Texinfo macro:                 Texinfo.             (line  12)
* Windows:                               EXEEXT.              (line   6)
* yacc, multiple parsers:                Yacc and Lex.        (line  46)
* ylwrap:                                Yacc and Lex.        (line  46)
* zardoz example:                        Complete.            (line  35)