File: binutils.info, Node: ar, Next: nm, Prev: Top, Up: Top 1 ar **** ar [`--plugin' NAME] [-]P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...] ar -M [ <mri-script ] The GNU `ar' program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives. An "archive" is a single file holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual files (called "members" of the archive). The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on extraction. GNU `ar' can maintain archives whose members have names of any length; however, depending on how `ar' is configured on your system, a limit on member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with archive formats maintained with other tools. If it exists, the limit is often 15 characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16 characters (typical of formats related to coff). `ar' is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort are most often used as "libraries" holding commonly needed subroutines. `ar' creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object modules in the archive when you specify the modifier `s'. Once created, this index is updated in the archive whenever `ar' makes a change to its contents (save for the `q' update operation). An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library, and allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to their placement in the archive. You may use `nm -s' or `nm --print-armap' to list this index table. If an archive lacks the table, another form of `ar' called `ranlib' can be used to add just the table. GNU `ar' can optionally create a _thin_ archive, which contains a symbol index and references to the original copies of the member files of the archives. Such an archive is useful for building libraries for use within a local build, where the relocatable objects are expected to remain available, and copying the contents of each object would only waste time and space. Thin archives are also _flattened_, so that adding one or more archives to a thin archive will add the elements of the nested archive individually. The paths to the elements of the archive are stored relative to the archive itself. GNU `ar' is designed to be compatible with two different facilities. You can control its activity using command-line options, like the different varieties of `ar' on Unix systems; or, if you specify the single command-line option `-M', you can control it with a script supplied via standard input, like the MRI "librarian" program. * Menu: * ar cmdline:: Controlling `ar' on the command line * ar scripts:: Controlling `ar' with a script File: binutils.info, Node: ar cmdline, Next: ar scripts, Up: ar 1.1 Controlling `ar' on the Command Line ======================================== ar [`--plugin' NAME] [`-X32_64'] [`-']P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...] When you use `ar' in the Unix style, `ar' insists on at least two arguments to execute: one keyletter specifying the _operation_ (optionally accompanied by other keyletters specifying _modifiers_), and the archive name to act on. Most operations can also accept further MEMBER arguments, specifying particular files to operate on. GNU `ar' allows you to mix the operation code P and modifier flags MOD in any order, within the first command-line argument. If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a dash. The P keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any of the following, but you must specify only one of them: `d' _Delete_ modules from the archive. Specify the names of modules to be deleted as MEMBER...; the archive is untouched if you specify no files to delete. If you specify the `v' modifier, `ar' lists each module as it is deleted. `m' Use this operation to _move_ members in an archive. The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in more than one member. If no modifiers are used with `m', any members you name in the MEMBER arguments are moved to the _end_ of the archive; you can use the `a', `b', or `i' modifiers to move them to a specified place instead. `p' _Print_ the specified members of the archive, to the standard output file. If the `v' modifier is specified, show the member name before copying its contents to standard output. If you specify no MEMBER arguments, all the files in the archive are printed. `q' _Quick append_; Historically, add the files MEMBER... to the end of ARCHIVE, without checking for replacement. The modifiers `a', `b', and `i' do _not_ affect this operation; new members are always placed at the end of the archive. The modifier `v' makes `ar' list each file as it is appended. Since the point of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can use `ar s' or `ranlib' explicitly to update the symbol table index. However, too many different systems assume quick append rebuilds the index, so GNU `ar' implements `q' as a synonym for `r'. `r' Insert the files MEMBER... into ARCHIVE (with _replacement_). This operation differs from `q' in that any previously existing members are deleted if their names match those being added. If one of the files named in MEMBER... does not exist, `ar' displays an error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing members of the archive matching that name. By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you may use one of the modifiers `a', `b', or `i' to request placement relative to some existing member. The modifier `v' used with this operation elicits a line of output for each file inserted, along with one of the letters `a' or `r' to indicate whether the file was appended (no old member deleted) or replaced. `t' Display a _table_ listing the contents of ARCHIVE, or those of the files listed in MEMBER... that are present in the archive. Normally only the member name is shown; if you also want to see the modes (permissions), timestamp, owner, group, and size, you can request that by also specifying the `v' modifier. If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are listed. If there is more than one file with the same name (say, `fie') in an archive (say `b.a'), `ar t b.a fie' lists only the first instance; to see them all, you must ask for a complete listing--in our example, `ar t b.a'. `x' _Extract_ members (named MEMBER) from the archive. You can use the `v' modifier with this operation, to request that `ar' list each name as it extracts it. If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are extracted. Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive. A number of modifiers (MOD) may immediately follow the P keyletter, to specify variations on an operation's behavior: `a' Add new files _after_ an existing member of the archive. If you use the modifier `a', the name of an existing archive member must be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE specification. `b' Add new files _before_ an existing member of the archive. If you use the modifier `b', the name of an existing archive member must be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE specification. (same as `i'). `c' _Create_ the archive. The specified ARCHIVE is always created if it did not exist, when you request an update. But a warning is issued unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it, by using this modifier. `D' Operate in _deterministic_ mode. When adding files and the archive index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file modes for all files. When this option is used, if `ar' is used with identical options and identical input files, multiple runs will create identical output files regardless of the input files' owners, groups, file modes, or modification times. `f' Truncate names in the archive. GNU `ar' will normally permit file names of any length. This will cause it to create archives which are not compatible with the native `ar' program on some systems. If this is a concern, the `f' modifier may be used to truncate file names when putting them in the archive. `i' Insert new files _before_ an existing member of the archive. If you use the modifier `i', the name of an existing archive member must be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE specification. (same as `b'). `l' This modifier is accepted but not used. `N' Uses the COUNT parameter. This is used if there are multiple entries in the archive with the same name. Extract or delete instance COUNT of the given name from the archive. `o' Preserve the _original_ dates of members when extracting them. If you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive are stamped with the time of extraction. `P' Use the full path name when matching names in the archive. GNU `ar' can not create an archive with a full path name (such archives are not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can. This option will cause GNU `ar' to match file names using a complete path name, which can be convenient when extracting a single file from an archive created by another tool. `s' Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing one, even if no other change is made to the archive. You may use this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone. Running `ar s' on an archive is equivalent to running `ranlib' on it. `S' Do not generate an archive symbol table. This can speed up building a large library in several steps. The resulting archive can not be used with the linker. In order to build a symbol table, you must omit the `S' modifier on the last execution of `ar', or you must run `ranlib' on the archive. `T' Make the specified ARCHIVE a _thin_ archive. If it already exists and is a regular archive, the existing members must be present in the same directory as ARCHIVE. `u' Normally, `ar r'... inserts all files listed into the archive. If you would like to insert _only_ those of the files you list that are newer than existing members of the same names, use this modifier. The `u' modifier is allowed only for the operation `r' (replace). In particular, the combination `qu' is not allowed, since checking the timestamps would lose any speed advantage from the operation `q'. `v' This modifier requests the _verbose_ version of an operation. Many operations display additional information, such as filenames processed, when the modifier `v' is appended. `V' This modifier shows the version number of `ar'. `ar' ignores an initial option spelt `-X32_64', for compatibility with AIX. The behaviour produced by this option is the default for GNU `ar'. `ar' does not support any of the other `-X' options; in particular, it does not support `-X32' which is the default for AIX `ar'. The optional command line switch `--plugin' NAME causes `ar' to load the plugin called NAME which adds support for more file formats. This option is only available if the toolchain has been built with plugin support enabled. File: binutils.info, Node: ar scripts, Prev: ar cmdline, Up: ar 1.2 Controlling `ar' with a Script ================================== ar -M [ <SCRIPT ] If you use the single command-line option `-M' with `ar', you can control its operation with a rudimentary command language. This form of `ar' operates interactively if standard input is coming directly from a terminal. During interactive use, `ar' prompts for input (the prompt is `AR >'), and continues executing even after errors. If you redirect standard input to a script file, no prompts are issued, and `ar' abandons execution (with a nonzero exit code) on any error. The `ar' command language is _not_ designed to be equivalent to the command-line options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control over archives. The only purpose of the command language is to ease the transition to GNU `ar' for developers who already have scripts written for the MRI "librarian" program. The syntax for the `ar' command language is straightforward: * commands are recognized in upper or lower case; for example, `LIST' is the same as `list'. In the following descriptions, commands are shown in upper case for clarity. * a single command may appear on each line; it is the first word on the line. * empty lines are allowed, and have no effect. * comments are allowed; text after either of the characters `*' or `;' is ignored. * Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an `ar' command, you can separate the individual names with either commas or blanks. Commas are shown in the explanations below, for clarity. * `+' is used as a line continuation character; if `+' appears at the end of a line, the text on the following line is considered part of the current command. Here are the commands you can use in `ar' scripts, or when using `ar' interactively. Three of them have special significance: `OPEN' or `CREATE' specify a "current archive", which is a temporary file required for most of the other commands. `SAVE' commits the changes so far specified by the script. Prior to `SAVE', commands affect only the temporary copy of the current archive. `ADDLIB ARCHIVE' `ADDLIB ARCHIVE (MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE)' Add all the contents of ARCHIVE (or, if specified, each named MODULE from ARCHIVE) to the current archive. Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'. `ADDMOD MEMBER, MEMBER, ... MEMBER' Add each named MEMBER as a module in the current archive. Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'. `CLEAR' Discard the contents of the current archive, canceling the effect of any operations since the last `SAVE'. May be executed (with no effect) even if no current archive is specified. `CREATE ARCHIVE' Creates an archive, and makes it the current archive (required for many other commands). The new archive is created with a temporary name; it is not actually saved as ARCHIVE until you use `SAVE'. You can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the contents of any existing file named ARCHIVE will not be destroyed until `SAVE'. `DELETE MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE' Delete each listed MODULE from the current archive; equivalent to `ar -d ARCHIVE MODULE ... MODULE'. Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'. `DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE, ... MODULE)' `DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE, ... MODULE) OUTPUTFILE' List each named MODULE present in ARCHIVE. The separate command `VERBOSE' specifies the form of the output: when verbose output is off, output is like that of `ar -t ARCHIVE MODULE...'. When verbose output is on, the listing is like `ar -tv ARCHIVE MODULE...'. Output normally goes to the standard output stream; however, if you specify OUTPUTFILE as a final argument, `ar' directs the output to that file. `END' Exit from `ar', with a `0' exit code to indicate successful completion. This command does not save the output file; if you have changed the current archive since the last `SAVE' command, those changes are lost. `EXTRACT MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE' Extract each named MODULE from the current archive, writing them into the current directory as separate files. Equivalent to `ar -x ARCHIVE MODULE...'. Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'. `LIST' Display full contents of the current archive, in "verbose" style regardless of the state of `VERBOSE'. The effect is like `ar tv ARCHIVE'. (This single command is a GNU `ar' enhancement, rather than present for MRI compatibility.) Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'. `OPEN ARCHIVE' Opens an existing archive for use as the current archive (required for many other commands). Any changes as the result of subsequent commands will not actually affect ARCHIVE until you next use `SAVE'. `REPLACE MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE' In the current archive, replace each existing MODULE (named in the `REPLACE' arguments) from files in the current working directory. To execute this command without errors, both the file, and the module in the current archive, must exist. Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'. `VERBOSE' Toggle an internal flag governing the output from `DIRECTORY'. When the flag is on, `DIRECTORY' output matches output from `ar -tv '.... `SAVE' Commit your changes to the current archive, and actually save it as a file with the name specified in the last `CREATE' or `OPEN' command. Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.