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GDB Annotations
***************

This document describes the obsolete level two annotation interface
implemented in older GDB versions.

* Menu:

* Annotations Overview::  What annotations are; the general syntax.
* Limitations::           Limitations of the annotation interface.
* Migrating to GDB/MI::   Migrating to GDB/MI
* Server Prefix::       Issuing a command without affecting user state.
* Value Annotations::   Values are marked as such.
* Frame Annotations::   Stack frames are annotated.
* Displays::            GDB can be told to display something periodically.
* Prompting::           Annotations marking GDB's need for input.
* Errors::              Annotations for error messages.
* Breakpoint Info::     Information on breakpoints.
* Invalidation::        Some annotations describe things now invalid.
* Annotations for Running::
                        Whether the program is running, how it stopped, etc.
* Source Annotations::  Annotations describing source code.
* Multi-threaded Apps:: An annotation that reports multi-threadedness.

* GNU Free Documentation License::

File: annotate.info,  Node: Annotations Overview,  Next: Limitations,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 What is an Annotation?
************************

To produce obsolete level two annotations, start GDB with the
`--annotate=2' option.

   Annotations start with a newline character, two `control-z'
characters, and the name of the annotation.  If there is no additional
information associated with this annotation, the name of the annotation
is followed immediately by a newline.  If there is additional
information, the name of the annotation is followed by a space, the
additional information, and a newline.  The additional information
cannot contain newline characters.

   Any output not beginning with a newline and two `control-z'
characters denotes literal output from GDB.  Currently there is no need
for GDB to output a newline followed by two `control-z' characters, but
if there was such a need, the annotations could be extended with an
`escape' annotation which means those three characters as output.

   A simple example of starting up GDB with annotations is:

     $ gdb --annotate=2
     GNU GDB 5.0
     Copyright 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License,
     and you are welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it
     under certain conditions.
     Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
     There is absolutely no warranty for GDB.  Type "show warranty"
     for details.
     This GDB was configured as "sparc-sun-sunos4.1.3"

     ^Z^Zpre-prompt
     (gdb)
     ^Z^Zprompt
     quit

     ^Z^Zpost-prompt
     $

   Here `quit' is input to GDB; the rest is output from GDB.  The three
lines beginning `^Z^Z' (where `^Z' denotes a `control-z' character) are
annotations; the rest is output from GDB.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Limitations,  Next: Migrating to GDB/MI,  Prev: Annotations Overview,  Up: Top

2 Limitations of the Annotation Interface
*****************************************

The level two annotations mechanism is known to have a number of
technical and architectural limitations.  As a consequence, in 2001,
with the release of GDB 5.1 and the addition of GDB/MI, the annotation
interface was marked as deprecated.

   This chapter discusses the known problems.

2.1 Dependant on CLI output
===========================

The annotation interface works by interspersing markups with GDB normal
command-line interpreter output.  Unfortunately, this makes the
annotation client dependant on not just the annotations, but also the
CLI output.  This is because the client is forced to assume that
specific GDB commands provide specific information.  Any change to
GDB's CLI output modifies or removes that information and,
consequently, likely breaks the client.

   Since the GDB/MI output is independent of the CLI, it does not have
this problem.

2.2 Scalability
===============

The annotation interface relies on value annotations (*note Value
Annotations::) and the display mechanism as a way of obtaining
up-to-date value information.  These mechanisms are not scalable.

   In a graphical environment, where many values can be displayed
simultaneously, a serious performance problem occurs when the client
tries to first extract from GDB, and then re-display, all those values.
The client should instead only request and update the values that
changed.

   The GDB/MI Variable Objects provide just that mechanism.

2.3 Correctness
===============

The annotation interface assumes that a variable's value can only be
changed when the target is running.  This assumption is not correct.  A
single assignment to a single variable can result in the entire target,
and all displayed values, needing an update.

   The GDB/MI Variable Objects include a mechanism for efficiently
reporting such changes.

2.4 Reliability
===============

The GDB/MI interface includes a dedicated test directory
(`gdb/gdb.mi'), and any addition or fix to GDB/MI must include
testsuite changes.

2.5 Maintainability
===================

The annotation mechanism was implemented by interspersing CLI print
statements with various annotations.  As a consequence, any CLI output
change can alter the annotation output.

   Since the GDB/MI output is independent of the CLI, and the GDB/MI is
increasingly implemented independent of the CLI code, its long term
maintenance is much easier.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Migrating to GDB/MI,  Next: Server Prefix,  Prev: Limitations,  Up: Top

3 Migrating to GDB/MI
*********************

By using the `interp mi' command, it is possible for annotation clients
to invoke GDB/MI commands, and hence access the GDB/MI.  By doing this,
existing annotation clients have a migration path from this obsolete
interface to GDB/MI.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Server Prefix,  Next: Value Annotations,  Prev: Migrating to GDB/MI,  Up: Top

4 The Server Prefix
*******************

To issue a command to GDB without affecting certain aspects of the
state which is seen by users, prefix it with `server '.  This means
that this command will not affect the command history, nor will it
affect GDB's notion of which command to repeat if <RET> is pressed on a
line by itself.

   The server prefix does not affect the recording of values into the
value history; to print a value without recording it into the value
history, use the `output' command instead of the `print' command.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Value Annotations,  Next: Frame Annotations,  Prev: Server Prefix,  Up: Top

5 Values
********

_Value Annotations have been removed.  GDB/MI instead provides Variable
Objects._

   When a value is printed in various contexts, GDB uses annotations to
delimit the value from the surrounding text.

   If a value is printed using `print' and added to the value history,
the annotation looks like

     ^Z^Zvalue-history-begin HISTORY-NUMBER VALUE-FLAGS
     HISTORY-STRING
     ^Z^Zvalue-history-value
     THE-VALUE
     ^Z^Zvalue-history-end

where HISTORY-NUMBER is the number it is getting in the value history,
HISTORY-STRING is a string, such as `$5 = ', which introduces the value
to the user, THE-VALUE is the output corresponding to the value itself,
and VALUE-FLAGS is `*' for a value which can be dereferenced and `-'
for a value which cannot.

   If the value is not added to the value history (it is an invalid
float or it is printed with the `output' command), the annotation is
similar:

     ^Z^Zvalue-begin VALUE-FLAGS
     THE-VALUE
     ^Z^Zvalue-end

   When GDB prints an argument to a function (for example, in the output
from the `backtrace' command), it annotates it as follows:

     ^Z^Zarg-begin
     ARGUMENT-NAME
     ^Z^Zarg-name-end
     SEPARATOR-STRING
     ^Z^Zarg-value VALUE-FLAGS
     THE-VALUE
     ^Z^Zarg-end

where ARGUMENT-NAME is the name of the argument, SEPARATOR-STRING is
text which separates the name from the value for the user's benefit
(such as `='), and VALUE-FLAGS and THE-VALUE have the same meanings as
in a `value-history-begin' annotation.

   When printing a structure, GDB annotates it as follows:

     ^Z^Zfield-begin VALUE-FLAGS
     FIELD-NAME
     ^Z^Zfield-name-end
     SEPARATOR-STRING
     ^Z^Zfield-value
     THE-VALUE
     ^Z^Zfield-end

where FIELD-NAME is the name of the field, SEPARATOR-STRING is text
which separates the name from the value for the user's benefit (such as
`='), and VALUE-FLAGS and THE-VALUE have the same meanings as in a
`value-history-begin' annotation.

   When printing an array, GDB annotates it as follows:

     ^Z^Zarray-section-begin ARRAY-INDEX VALUE-FLAGS

where ARRAY-INDEX is the index of the first element being annotated and
VALUE-FLAGS has the same meaning as in a `value-history-begin'
annotation.  This is followed by any number of elements, where is
element can be either a single element:

     `,' WHITESPACE         ; omitted for the first element
     THE-VALUE
     ^Z^Zelt

   or a repeated element

     `,' WHITESPACE         ; omitted for the first element
     THE-VALUE
     ^Z^Zelt-rep NUMBER-OF-REPETITIONS
     REPETITION-STRING
     ^Z^Zelt-rep-end

   In both cases, THE-VALUE is the output for the value of the element
and WHITESPACE can contain spaces, tabs, and newlines.  In the repeated
case, NUMBER-OF-REPETITIONS is the number of consecutive array elements
which contain that value, and REPETITION-STRING is a string which is
designed to convey to the user that repetition is being depicted.

   Once all the array elements have been output, the array annotation is
ended with

     ^Z^Zarray-section-end

File: annotate.info,  Node: Frame Annotations,  Next: Displays,  Prev: Value Annotations,  Up: Top

6 Frames
********

_Value Annotations have been removed.  GDB/MI instead provides a number
of frame commands._

   _Frame annotations are no longer available.  The GDB/MI provides
`-stack-list-arguments', `-stack-list-locals', and `-stack-list-frames'
commands._

   Whenever GDB prints a frame, it annotates it.  For example, this
applies to frames printed when GDB stops, output from commands such as
`backtrace' or `up', etc.

   The frame annotation begins with

     ^Z^Zframe-begin LEVEL ADDRESS
     LEVEL-STRING

where LEVEL is the number of the frame (0 is the innermost frame, and
other frames have positive numbers), ADDRESS is the address of the code
executing in that frame, and LEVEL-STRING is a string designed to
convey the level to the user.  ADDRESS is in the form `0x' followed by
one or more lowercase hex digits (note that this does not depend on the
language).  The frame ends with

     ^Z^Zframe-end

   Between these annotations is the main body of the frame, which can
consist of

   *      ^Z^Zfunction-call
          FUNCTION-CALL-STRING

     where FUNCTION-CALL-STRING is text designed to convey to the user
     that this frame is associated with a function call made by GDB to a
     function in the program being debugged.

   *      ^Z^Zsignal-handler-caller
          SIGNAL-HANDLER-CALLER-STRING

     where SIGNAL-HANDLER-CALLER-STRING is text designed to convey to
     the user that this frame is associated with whatever mechanism is
     used by this operating system to call a signal handler (it is the
     frame which calls the signal handler, not the frame for the signal
     handler itself).

   * A normal frame.

     This can optionally (depending on whether this is thought of as
     interesting information for the user to see) begin with

          ^Z^Zframe-address
          ADDRESS
          ^Z^Zframe-address-end
          SEPARATOR-STRING

     where ADDRESS is the address executing in the frame (the same
     address as in the `frame-begin' annotation, but printed in a form
     which is intended for user consumption--in particular, the syntax
     varies depending on the language), and SEPARATOR-STRING is a string
     intended to separate this address from what follows for the user's
     benefit.

     Then comes

          ^Z^Zframe-function-name
          FUNCTION-NAME
          ^Z^Zframe-args
          ARGUMENTS

     where FUNCTION-NAME is the name of the function executing in the
     frame, or `??' if not known, and ARGUMENTS are the arguments to
     the frame, with parentheses around them (each argument is annotated
     individually as well, *note Value Annotations::).

     If source information is available, a reference to it is then
     printed:

          ^Z^Zframe-source-begin
          SOURCE-INTRO-STRING
          ^Z^Zframe-source-file
          FILENAME
          ^Z^Zframe-source-file-end
          :
          ^Z^Zframe-source-line
          LINE-NUMBER
          ^Z^Zframe-source-end

     where SOURCE-INTRO-STRING separates for the user's benefit the
     reference from the text which precedes it, FILENAME is the name of
     the source file, and LINE-NUMBER is the line number within that
     file (the first line is line 1).

     If GDB prints some information about where the frame is from (which
     library, which load segment, etc.; currently only done on the
     RS/6000), it is annotated with

          ^Z^Zframe-where
          INFORMATION

     Then, if source is to actually be displayed for this frame (for
     example, this is not true for output from the `backtrace'
     command), then a `source' annotation (*note Source Annotations::)
     is displayed.  Unlike most annotations, this is output instead of
     the normal text which would be output, not in addition.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Displays,  Next: Prompting,  Prev: Frame Annotations,  Up: Top

7 Displays
**********

_Display Annotations have been removed.  GDB/MI instead provides
Variable Objects._

   When GDB is told to display something using the `display' command,
the results of the display are annotated:

     ^Z^Zdisplay-begin
     NUMBER
     ^Z^Zdisplay-number-end
     NUMBER-SEPARATOR
     ^Z^Zdisplay-format
     FORMAT
     ^Z^Zdisplay-expression
     EXPRESSION
     ^Z^Zdisplay-expression-end
     EXPRESSION-SEPARATOR
     ^Z^Zdisplay-value
     VALUE
     ^Z^Zdisplay-end

where NUMBER is the number of the display, NUMBER-SEPARATOR is intended
to separate the number from what follows for the user, FORMAT includes
information such as the size, format, or other information about how
the value is being displayed, EXPRESSION is the expression being
displayed, EXPRESSION-SEPARATOR is intended to separate the expression
from the text that follows for the user, and VALUE is the actual value
being displayed.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Prompting,  Next: Errors,  Prev: Displays,  Up: Top

8 Annotation for GDB Input
**************************

When GDB prompts for input, it annotates this fact so it is possible to
know when to send output, when the output from a given command is over,
etc.

   Different kinds of input each have a different "input type".  Each
input type has three annotations: a `pre-' annotation, which denotes
the beginning of any prompt which is being output, a plain annotation,
which denotes the end of the prompt, and then a `post-' annotation
which denotes the end of any echo which may (or may not) be associated
with the input.  For example, the `prompt' input type features the
following annotations:

     ^Z^Zpre-prompt
     ^Z^Zprompt
     ^Z^Zpost-prompt

   The input types are

`prompt'
     When GDB is prompting for a command (the main GDB prompt).

`commands'
     When GDB prompts for a set of commands, like in the `commands'
     command.  The annotations are repeated for each command which is
     input.

`overload-choice'
     When GDB wants the user to select between various overloaded
     functions.

`query'
     When GDB wants the user to confirm a potentially dangerous
     operation.

`prompt-for-continue'
     When GDB is asking the user to press return to continue.  Note:
     Don't expect this to work well; instead use `set height 0' to
     disable prompting.  This is because the counting of lines is buggy
     in the presence of annotations.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Errors,  Next: Breakpoint Info,  Prev: Prompting,  Up: Top

9 Errors
********

     ^Z^Zquit

   This annotation occurs right before GDB responds to an interrupt.

     ^Z^Zerror

   This annotation occurs right before GDB responds to an error.

   Quit and error annotations indicate that any annotations which GDB
was in the middle of may end abruptly.  For example, if a
`value-history-begin' annotation is followed by a `error', one cannot
expect to receive the matching `value-history-end'.  One cannot expect
not to receive it either, however; an error annotation does not
necessarily mean that GDB is immediately returning all the way to the
top level.

   A quit or error annotation may be preceded by

     ^Z^Zerror-begin

   Any output between that and the quit or error annotation is the error
message.

   Warning messages are not yet annotated.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Breakpoint Info,  Next: Invalidation,  Prev: Errors,  Up: Top

10 Information on Breakpoints
*****************************

_Breakpoint Annotations have been removed.  GDB/MI instead provides
breakpoint commands._

   The output from the `info breakpoints' command is annotated as
follows:

     ^Z^Zbreakpoints-headers
     HEADER-ENTRY
     ^Z^Zbreakpoints-table

where HEADER-ENTRY has the same syntax as an entry (see below) but
instead of containing data, it contains strings which are intended to
convey the meaning of each field to the user.  This is followed by any
number of entries.  If a field does not apply for this entry, it is
omitted.  Fields may contain trailing whitespace.  Each entry consists
of:

     ^Z^Zrecord
     ^Z^Zfield 0
     NUMBER
     ^Z^Zfield 1
     TYPE
     ^Z^Zfield 2
     DISPOSITION
     ^Z^Zfield 3
     ENABLE
     ^Z^Zfield 4
     ADDRESS
     ^Z^Zfield 5
     WHAT
     ^Z^Zfield 6
     FRAME
     ^Z^Zfield 7
     CONDITION
     ^Z^Zfield 8
     IGNORE-COUNT
     ^Z^Zfield 9
     COMMANDS

   Note that ADDRESS is intended for user consumption--the syntax
varies depending on the language.

   The output ends with

     ^Z^Zbreakpoints-table-end

File: annotate.info,  Node: Invalidation,  Next: Annotations for Running,  Prev: Breakpoint Info,  Up: Top

11 Invalidation Notices
***********************

The following annotations say that certain pieces of state may have
changed.

`^Z^Zframes-invalid'
     The frames (for example, output from the `backtrace' command) may
     have changed.

`^Z^Zbreakpoints-invalid'
     The breakpoints may have changed.  For example, the user just
     added or deleted a breakpoint.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Annotations for Running,  Next: Source Annotations,  Prev: Invalidation,  Up: Top

12 Running the Program
**********************

When the program starts executing due to a GDB command such as `step'
or `continue',

     ^Z^Zstarting

   is output.  When the program stops,

     ^Z^Zstopped

   is output.  Before the `stopped' annotation, a variety of
annotations describe how the program stopped.

`^Z^Zexited EXIT-STATUS'
     The program exited, and EXIT-STATUS is the exit status (zero for
     successful exit, otherwise nonzero).

`^Z^Zsignalled'
     The program exited with a signal.  After the `^Z^Zsignalled', the
     annotation continues:

          INTRO-TEXT
          ^Z^Zsignal-name
          NAME
          ^Z^Zsignal-name-end
          MIDDLE-TEXT
          ^Z^Zsignal-string
          STRING
          ^Z^Zsignal-string-end
          END-TEXT

     where NAME is the name of the signal, such as `SIGILL' or
     `SIGSEGV', and STRING is the explanation of the signal, such as
     `Illegal Instruction' or `Segmentation fault'.  INTRO-TEXT,
     MIDDLE-TEXT, and END-TEXT are for the user's benefit and have no
     particular format.

`^Z^Zsignal'
     The syntax of this annotation is just like `signalled', but GDB is
     just saying that the program received the signal, not that it was
     terminated with it.

`^Z^Zbreakpoint NUMBER'
     The program hit breakpoint number NUMBER.

`^Z^Zwatchpoint NUMBER'
     The program hit watchpoint number NUMBER.

File: annotate.info,  Node: Source Annotations,  Next: Multi-threaded Apps,  Prev: Annotations for Running,  Up: Top

13 Displaying Source
********************

The following annotation is used instead of displaying source code:

     ^Z^Zsource FILENAME:LINE:CHARACTER:MIDDLE:ADDR

   where FILENAME is an absolute file name indicating which source
file, LINE is the line number within that file (where 1 is the first
line in the file), CHARACTER is the character position within the file
(where 0 is the first character in the file) (for most debug formats
this will necessarily point to the beginning of a line), MIDDLE is
`middle' if ADDR is in the middle of the line, or `beg' if ADDR is at
the beginning of the line, and ADDR is the address in the target
program associated with the source which is being displayed.  ADDR is
in the form `0x' followed by one or more lowercase hex digits (note
that this does not depend on the language).

File: annotate.info,  Node: Multi-threaded Apps,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Source Annotations,  Up: Top

14 Multi-threaded Applications
******************************

The following annotations report thread related changes of state.

`^Z^Znew-thread'
     This annotation is issued once for each thread that is created
     apart from the main thread, which is not reported.

`^Z^Zthread-changed'
     The selected thread has changed.  This may occur at the request of
     the user with the `thread' command, or as a result of execution,
     e.g., another thread hits a breakpoint.


File: annotate.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Multi-threaded Apps,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
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     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
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     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
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     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
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     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
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     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
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     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
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     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
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     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
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     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

 11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.